Ukrainian Grammar http://ukrainiangrammar.com/ The place to learn Ukrainian language uk editor@digifun.info Mon, 19 Nov 2012 17:46:11 +0200 Mon, 19 Nov 2012 17:46:11 +0200 <![CDATA[The Verb: General Information]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-11-18/the-verb-general-information.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-11-18/the-verb-general-information.html Mon, 19 Nov 2012 17:46:11 +0200 <p>The verb (дієслово /dijɛslowo/) &mdash; is a part of speech which describes the state or action of an object. It answers the questions: що робити?/що зробити? (what to do?).</p>

<p>Ukrainian verbs have such <strong>grammatical forms</strong>:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Infinitive.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Finite verbs.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Adjectival participle.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Adverbial participle.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Non-finite verbs.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p>Ukrainian verbs have such <strong>grammatical categories</strong>:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>Aspect: perfective and imperfective.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Transivity: transitive and intransitive verbs.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Voice: active, passive and reflexive-middle.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Mood: indicative, subjunctive and imperative.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Tense: past, present and future.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Person: first, second and third.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Number: singular and plural.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Gender: masculine, feminine and neuter.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><cut>Read more about forms of the verb</cut></p>

<h2>Infinitive</h2>

<p>The <strong>infinitive</strong> of a verb is its basic form (all verbs in the dictionary are infinitives).</p>

<p>Ukrainian infinitives end with a suffix <strong>-ти (-ть)</strong>, after which there can be used suffix <strong>-ся</strong>.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p>дума-ти (to think), чита-ти (to read), смія-ти-ся (to laugh).</p>

<p>As a basic form of a verb infinitive bare only some of the verb's general categories (i.e. aspect, transivity and voice). On the other hand they do not have person, number, tense, mood or gender.</p>

<p>In sentences infinitives can function as:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>a subject:</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Говорити</span> правду &mdash; це чесність із собою. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Telling</span> truth is being honest with yourself.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>a predicative:</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Розмовляти</span> у громадському транспорті &mdash; невиховано. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Talking</span> in public transport is impolite.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>an object:</p>

<p>Він мріє <span style="text-decoration: underline;">поїхати</span> до Італії. &mdash; He dreams <span style="text-decoration: underline;">to go</span> to Italy.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>an adverbial:</p>

<p>Вона прийшла до мене, щоб <span style="text-decoration: underline;">забрати</span> свою книжку. &mdash; She came to me <span style="text-decoration: underline;">to take</span> her book.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>a modifier:</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Знати</span> усе й про всіх &mdash; його обов'язок. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">To know</span> everything about everyone is his responsibility.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<h2>Finite verbs</h2>

<p><strong>Finite verbs</strong> in Ukrainian language can express several grammatical categories (listed above).</p>

<p>One verb can express almost all of them at once, for example:</p>

<p>Вона <span style="text-decoration: underline;">написала</span> листа. &mdash; She <span style="text-decoration: underline;">wrote</span> a letter.</p>

<p>The verb <em>написала</em> has perfective aspect, active voice, indicative mood, past tense, singular number, feminine gender and is transitive (though it does not state a specific person, as <em>написала</em> can be used with the first (I), second (you) or third (she) singular person).</p>

<h2>Adjectival participle</h2>

<p><strong>Adjectival participle</strong>, or nominal form of the verb, expresses the character of an object by action. It is inflected by gender, number and cases which are the same as the noun it modifies.</p>

<p>In sentences they function as modifiers.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Написаний</span> ним вірш не сподобався нікому. &mdash; Nobody liked the poem <span style="text-decoration: underline;">written</span> by him.</p>

<h2>Adverbial participle</h2>

<p><strong>Adverbial participle</strong> is an unchanging form of the verb that expresses an action or state as a definition of another action or state and bares qualities of both the verb and adverb.</p>

<p>In sentences they function as adverbials.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Прийшовши</span> додому, він одразу подзвонив другові. &mdash; After he <span style="text-decoration: underline;">came</span> back home he immediately phoned his friend.</p>

<h2>Non-finite verbs</h2>

<p><strong>Non-finite verbs</strong> in Ukrainian are called <em>безособові</em> which means they do not have person. These verbs end with <strong>-но</strong>, <strong>-то</strong> and express action without reference to the actor. In sentences they function as independent words and are predicates in sentences with no subject.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p>Тут <span style="text-decoration: underline;">написано</span>, що завтра вихідний день. &mdash; It <span style="text-decoration: underline;">is written</span> here that tomorrow is a day off.</p>

<p>Цю сукню <span style="text-decoration: underline;">пошито</span> на замовлення. &mdash; This dress is tailor-made. (This dress <span style="text-decoration: underline;">is sewn</span> on request.)</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Pronoun: Cases]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-19/the-pronoun-cases.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-19/the-pronoun-cases.html Tue, 19 Jun 2012 01:21:34 +0300 <h1>Personal pronouns</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">I</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">we</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">you (singular)</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">you (plural)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">Nominative</span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">я</span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">ми</span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">ти</span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">ви</span></strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ас</span></td>

<td>теб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ас</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td>мен<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>тоб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative</strong></td>

<td>мен<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ас</span></td>

<td>теб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ас</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td>мн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>тоб<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span></td>

<td>в<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative</strong></td>

<td>мен<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ас</span></td>

<td>тоб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ас</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">he</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">it</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">she</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">they</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">Nominative</span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">він</span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">вон<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">вон<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></strong></td>

<td><strong><span style="color: #008000;">вон<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span></span></strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">й<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span><br /><span style="color: #3366ff;"><em>prep. +</em></span> нь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>го</span></td>

<td>ї<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ї</span></td>

<td>ї<span style="color: #ff0000;">х</span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">й<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span></span></td>

<td>ї<span style="color: #ff0000;">й</span></td>

<td>ї<span style="color: #ff0000;">м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">й<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> нь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>го</span></td>

<td>ї<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ї</span></td>

<td>ї<span style="color: #ff0000;">х</span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">н<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ї</span></td>

<td>н<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative<sup>1,2</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> нь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>й</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> н<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p><strong>я</strong> [jɑ] &mdash; I (sing.); <strong>ти</strong> [tɪ] &mdash; you (sing.); <strong>він</strong> [wʲin] &mdash; he (sing., masculine); <strong>вона</strong> [wɔn'ɑ] &mdash; she (sing., feminine); <strong>воно</strong> [wɔn'ɔ] &mdash; it (sing., neuter); <strong>ми</strong> [mɪ] &mdash; we (pl.); <strong>вони</strong> [wɔn'ɪ] &mdash; they (pl.); <strong>ви</strong> [wɪ] &mdash; you (pl.).</p>

<p><cut>Read more about other pronouns</cut></p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ol>

<li>

<p>The form of personal pronouns <em>він, вона, воно, вони</em> with prepositions and without is different, so you have to remember both of them.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Крім нього/неї/них</span>, тут нікого не було. &mdash; There was no one, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">besides him/her/them</span>.: Genitive case.</p>

<p>Це <span style="text-decoration: underline;">його/її/їх</span> не стосується. &mdash; This does not concern <span style="text-decoration: underline;">him/her/them</span>.: Gen.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative form <em>нім</em> is less popular then <em>ньому</em> and is mostly used in literature.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h1>Possessive pronouns</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="5">my/mine</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">masculine</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">neuter</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">feminine</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">plural</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Nominative</strong></td>

<td>м<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">м<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

<td>мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>му</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>й</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td>м<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span> (м<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span>)</td>

<td>мо<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span> (мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>х</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span></td>

<td>мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative<sup>2</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>му</span><br /><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>й</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> мо<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p><strong>мій</strong> [mʲij] &mdash; my/mine, <strong>твій</strong> [twʲij] &mdash; you/yours, <strong>його</strong> [jɔɦ'ɔ] &mdash; his/its, її [ji'ji] &mdash; her/hers, <strong>наш</strong> [nɑʃ] &mdash; our/ours, <strong>ваш</strong> [wɑʃ] &mdash; your/yours, <strong>їхній</strong> ['jixnʲij] &mdash; their/theirs, <strong>свій</strong> [swʲij].</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ol>

<li>

<p><em>мій, мої</em> are used mostly with inanimate things and <em>мого, моїх</em> with animate beings.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative form <em>моїм</em> is less popular then <em>моєму</em> and is mostly used in literature.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Possessive pronouns <strong>її</strong> (her/hers), <strong>його</strong> (his) does not change.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p>Це <span style="text-decoration: underline;">її/його</span> дім. &mdash; This is <span style="text-decoration: underline;">her/his</span> home.: Nominative.</p>

<p>Нам не впоратись без <span style="text-decoration: underline;">її/його</span> допомоги. &mdash; We won't make it without <span style="text-decoration: underline;">her/his</span> help.: Genitive.</p>

<p>Я знайшла <span style="text-decoration: underline;">її</span> щоденник. &mdash; I've found <span style="text-decoration: underline;">her/his</span> diary.: Accusative.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Possessive pronouns <strong>твій</strong> (you/yours) and <strong>свій</strong> decline as <strong>мій</strong> (my/mine).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Possessive pronouns <strong>наш</strong> (our/ours), <strong>ваш</strong> (your/yours) decline as <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives from hard group</a>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Possessive pronoun <strong>їхній</strong> (their/theirs) declines as <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives from soft group</a>.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h1>Reflexive pronouns</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 430px;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Nominative</strong></td>

<td style="width: 60%;">-</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td>себ<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td>соб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative</strong></td>

<td>себ<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td>соб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ою</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative</strong></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. + </span></em>соб<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p><strong>себе</strong> [sɛb'ɛ] &mdash; myself/herself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/themselves/yourselves/oneself.</p>

<h1>Interrogative and conjunctive pronouns</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 430px;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 60%;">who</td>

<td style="width: 60%;">what</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><span style="color: #008000;"><strong>Nominative</strong></span></td>

<td style="width: 60%;"><span style="color: #008000;">хто</span></td>

<td style="width: 60%;"><span style="color: #008000;">що</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

<td>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span></span></td>

<td>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span></span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative</strong></td>

<td>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

<td><span style="color: #ff0000;">що</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

<td>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative</strong></td>

<td>

<p><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. + </span></em>к<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span><em><span style="color: #3366ff;"><br />prep. + </span></em>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span><em><span style="color: #3366ff;"><br /></span></em></p>

</td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. + </span></em>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span><em><span style="color: #3366ff;"><br />prep. + </span></em>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span><em><span style="color: #3366ff;"><br /></span></em></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="5">whose</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">masculine</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">neuter</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">feminine</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">plural</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Nominative</strong></td>

<td>чий</td>

<td>чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span></span></td>

<td>чи<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">чий<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>го</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td rowspan="2"><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">чий<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;" rowspan="2">чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>й</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;" rowspan="2">чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;">чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>му</span></td>

<td style="text-align: center;">чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td>чий (чий<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>го</span>)</td>

<td>чи<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span> (чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>х</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span></td>

<td>чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative<sup>2</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> чий<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span><br />(<em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>му</span>, чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>м</span>)</td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>й</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> чи<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p><strong>хто?</strong> [xtɔ] &mdash; who?, <strong>що?</strong> [ʃt͡ʃɔ] &mdash; what?, <strong>чий?</strong> [t͡ʃɪj] &mdash; whose?, <strong>який?</strong> [jɑk'ɪj] &mdash; what?, <strong>котрий?</strong> [kɔtr'ɪj] &mdash; which? what?</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ol>

<li>

<p><em>чий, чиї</em> are used mostly with inanimate things and <em>чийого, чиїх</em> with animate beings.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative form <em>чиїм</em> is less popular then <em>чийому</em> or <em>чиєму</em> and is mostly used in literature.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Conjunctive pronouns</strong> are the same as interrogative pronouns but without question-marks.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Declension of <strong>хто?</strong> (who?), <strong>що?</strong> (what?) is very important, because it matches the questions of Ukrainian <a href="/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">cases</a>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>який?</strong> (what?), <strong>котрий?</strong> (which? what?) decline as <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives from hard group</a>.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h1>Demonstrative pronouns</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3">this</td>

<td style="text-align: center;">these</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Nominative</strong></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">ей</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">ць<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">і<span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">ць<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">ей</span> (ць<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span>)</td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span> (ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">і<span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative<sup>2</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> ць<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span><br />(<em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span>)</td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3">that</td>

<td style="text-align: center;">those</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Nominative</strong></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ой</span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>ц<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">і<span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">т<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">т<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ой</span> (т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ог<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span>)</td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span> (т<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">т<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">і<span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span> (т<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span>)</td>

<td>т<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative<sup>2</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> т<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span><br />(<em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span>)</td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> т<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p><strong>цей</strong> [t͡sɛj], <strong>оцей</strong> [ɔt͡s'ɛj], <strong>сей</strong> [sɛj] &mdash; this, <strong>той</strong> [tɔj], <strong>отой</strong> [ɔt'ɔj] &mdash; that, <strong>такий</strong> [tɑk'ɪj] &mdash; such, <strong>стільки</strong> [stʲ'ilʲkɪ] &mdash; this much.</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ol>

<li>

<p><em>цей, ці; той, ті</em> are used mostly with inanimate things and <em>цього, цих; того, тих</em> with animate beings.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative form <em>цім, тім</em> is less popular then <em>чийому</em> or <em>чиєму</em> and is mostly used in literature.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>оцей, сей</strong> decline as <em>цей</em> and <strong>отой</strong> as <em>той</em>, though pronoun <strong>сей</strong> is rarely used.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>такий</strong> (such) declines as <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives from hard group</a>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>стільки</strong> (this much) declines as <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-cases.html" rel="nofollow">numeral два (two)</a>.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h1>Defining pronouns</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="4">all/whole</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="width: 20%;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%;"><strong>plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Nominative</strong></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>есь</td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Genitive</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>сь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">і<span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">іх</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Dative</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>сь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span></span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;"><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;"><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">іх</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Accusative<sup>1</sup></strong></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>есь (<span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>сь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span></span>)</td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Instrumental</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">і<span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span></td>

<td><span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td><strong>Locative<sup>2</sup></strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> <span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>сь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span></span><br />(<em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> <span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span>)</td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> <span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td><em><span style="color: #3366ff;">prep. +</span></em> <span style="color: #3366ff;">в</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">іх</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p><strong>всякий</strong> [wsʲ'ɑkɪj], <strong>усякий</strong> [usʲ'ɑkɪj] &mdash; every/any, <strong>весь</strong> [wɛsʲ], <strong>увесь</strong> [uw'ɛsʲ], <strong>ввесь</strong> [w:ɛsʲ] &mdash; all/whole, <strong>кожний</strong> [k'ɔʒnɪj], <strong>кожен</strong> [k'ɔʒɛn] &mdash; every, <strong>інший</strong> ['inʃɪj] &mdash; another, <strong>сам</strong> [sɑm] &mdash; self/alone, <strong>самий</strong> [s'ɑmɪj] &mdash; the one/the same.</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ol>

<li>

<p><em>весь, всі</em> are used mostly with inanimate things and <em>всього, всіх</em> with animate beings.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative form <em>всім</em> is less popular then <em>всьому</em> and is mostly used in literature.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>увесь/ввесь, усе, уся, усі</strong> decline as <em>весь, все, вся, всі</em> respectively.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>всякий, усякий</strong> (every/any), <strong>кожний, кожен</strong> (every), <strong>інший</strong> (another), <strong>сам</strong> (self/alone), <strong>самий</strong> (the one/the same) decline as <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives from hard group</a>.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h1>Indefinite and negative pronouns</h1>

<p>Indefinite and negative pronouns decline as corresponding interrogative pronouns.</p>

<p><em>For example:</em></p>

<p>Indefinite pronoun <em>хто-небудь</em> (interrogative pronoun <em>хто?</em> + particle <em>-небудь</em>):</p>

<ul>

<li>Nom. <strong>хто</strong>-небудь;</li>

<li>Gen. <strong>кого</strong>-небудь;</li>

<li>Dat. <strong>кому</strong>-небудь;</li>

<li>Acc. <strong>кого</strong>-небудь;</li>

<li>Inst. <strong>ким</strong>-небудь;</li>

<li>Loc. <strong>кому</strong>-небудь.</li>

</ul>

<p>Negative pronoun <em>нічий</em> (particle <em>ні</em> + interrogative pronoun <em>чий?</em>):</p>

<ul>

<li>Nom. ні<strong>чий</strong>;</li>

<li>Gen. ні<strong>чийого</strong>;</li>

<li>Dat. ні<strong>чийому</strong>, ні<strong>чиєму</strong>;</li>

<li>Acc. ні<strong>чий</strong>, ні<strong>чийого</strong>;</li>

<li>Inst. ні<strong>чиїм</strong></li>

<li>Loc. ні<strong>чий</strong>.</li>

</ul>

]]>
<![CDATA[The list of contents]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-17/the-list-of-contents.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-17/the-list-of-contents.html Sun, 17 Jun 2012 22:33:13 +0300 <p><strong>Introduction to Ukrainian language</strong>: <a href="/article/2011-01-20/introduction-to-ukrainian-language.html" rel="nofollow">Alphabet</a>.</p>

<p><strong>Noun</strong>: <a href="/article/2011-01-22/the-noun-gender.html" rel="nofollow">Gender</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">Cases</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html" rel="nofollow">Declensions</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-first-declension.html" rel="nofollow">First declension</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-second-declension.html" rel="nofollow">Second declension</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-third-declension.html" rel="nofollow">Third declension</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-fourth-declension.html" rel="nofollow">Fourth declension</a>.</p>

<p><strong>Adjective</strong>: <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">General information</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">Declension</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-degrees-of-comparison.html" rel="nofollow">Degrees of comparison</a>.</p>

<p><strong>Verb</strong>: <a href="/article/2012-11-18/the-verb-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">General information</a> (forms of the verb).</p>

<p><strong>Adverb</strong>: <a href="/article/2012-02-10/the-adverb-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">General information</a> (types, degrees of comparison).</p>

<p><strong>Preposition</strong>: <a href="/article/2011-02-01/the-preposition-location-and-destination.html" rel="nofollow">Location and destination</a>.</p>

<p><strong>Numeral</strong>: <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">General information</a>, <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-basic-cardinals.html" rel="nofollow">Basic cardinal numerals</a>, <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-ordinals.html" rel="nofollow">Ordinal numerals</a>, <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-cases.html" rel="nofollow">Declension</a> and <a href="/article/2012-06-15/the-numeral-few-more-rules.html" rel="nofollow">Few more rules</a> (numerals + nouns).</p>

<p><strong>Telling time</strong>: <a href="/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-seasons-months.html" rel="nofollow">Seasons and months</a>, <a href="/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-days-of-the-week.html" rel="nofollow">Days of the week</a>, <a href="/article/2012-06-11/telling-time-hours.html" rel="nofollow">Hours</a>.</p>

<p><strong>Pronoun</strong>: <a href="/article/2012-06-15/the-pronoun-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">General information</a> (nine groups of pronouns), <a href="/article/2012-06-19/the-pronoun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">Declension</a>.</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p><em>This list is updated as the new content appears.</em></p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Pronoun: General information]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-15/the-pronoun-general-information.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-15/the-pronoun-general-information.html Fri, 15 Jun 2012 22:38:52 +0300 <p><strong>The pronoun</strong> (займенник /zɑjmɛ'n:ɪk/) is a part of speech which defines objects, qualities or quantities, without naming them.</p>

<p>They answer the questions: <em>who? what? which? whose? how many?</em></p>

<p>Pronouns have genders, singular/plural form and change according to cases.</p>

<p>There are nine groups of pronouns in Ukrainian language:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Personal pronouns (особові займенники): <strong>я</strong> (I), <strong>ти</strong> (you), <strong>він, вона, воно</strong> (he/she/it), <strong>ми</strong> (we), <strong>ви</strong> (you), <strong>вони</strong> (they);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Possessive pronouns (присвійні займенники) <strong>мій</strong> (my/mine), <strong>твій</strong> (you/yours), <strong>його, її</strong> (his/its, her/hers), <strong>наш</strong> (our/ours), <strong>ваш</strong> (your/yours), <strong>їхній</strong> (their/theirs), <strong>свій</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Reflexive pronouns (зворотні займенники): <strong>себе</strong> (myself/herself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/themselves/yourselves/oneself);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Interrogative pronouns (питальні займенники): <strong>хто?</strong> (who?), <strong>що?</strong> (what?), <strong>чий?</strong> (whose?), <strong>який?</strong> (what?), <strong>котрий?</strong> (which? what?);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Conjunctive pronouns (відносні займенники): <strong>хто</strong> (who), <strong>що</strong> (what), <strong>чий</strong> (whose), <strong>який</strong> (what), <strong>котрий</strong> (which, what);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Demonstrative pronouns (вказівні займенники): <strong>цей</strong> (this), <strong>той</strong> (that), <strong>такий</strong> (such), <strong>стільки</strong> (this much);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Defining pronouns (означальні займенники): <strong>всякий, усякий</strong> (every; any), <strong>весь, увесь, ввесь</strong> (all; whole), <strong>кожний, кожен</strong> (every), <strong>інший</strong> (another), <strong>сам</strong> (self; alone), <strong>самий</strong> (the one; the same);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Indefinite pronouns (неозначені займенники): <strong>хтось</strong> (somebody), <strong>щось</strong> (something), <strong>хто-небудь</strong> (somebody), <strong>будь-який</strong> (anything), <strong>будь-хто</strong> (anybody), <strong>будь-що</strong> (anything) etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Negative pronouns (заперечні займенники): <strong>ніхто</strong> (nobody; no one), <strong>ніщо</strong> (nothing), <strong>ніякий</strong> (no; none; any), <strong>нічий</strong> (nobody's), <strong>ніскільки</strong> (not at all; not a bit; nothing).</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p><cut>Read more about pronouns</cut></p>

<ol>

<li>

<p><strong>Personal pronouns</strong> define people, other creatures, objects, things.</p>

<p>All personal pronouns change according to cases and have singular, plural forms. Pronoun <em>він</em> also has genders.</p>

<p><strong>я</strong> &mdash; I (sing.)</p>

<p><strong>ти</strong> &mdash; you (sing.)</p>

<p><strong>він</strong> &mdash; he (sing., masculine)</p>

<p><strong>вона</strong> &mdash; she (sing., feminine)</p>

<p><strong>воно</strong> &mdash; it (sing., neuter)</p>

<p><strong>ми</strong> &mdash; we (pl.)</p>

<p><strong>вони</strong> &mdash; they (pl.)</p>

<p><strong>ви</strong> &mdash; you (pl.)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Possessive pronouns</strong> define possession of an object to the first person: <strong>мій</strong> (my/mine), to the second: <strong>твій</strong> (your/yours), <strong>ваш</strong> (your/yours), the third: <strong>його</strong> (his, its), <strong>її</strong> (her/hers), <strong>наш</strong> (our/ours), <strong>їхній</strong> (their/theirs) or any person: <strong>свій</strong>.</p>

<p>Possessive pronouns <em>(except його, її)</em> change according to cases, genders and have singular, plural forms.</p>

<p>But unlike other possessive pronouns, <strong>свій</strong> is used to describe the belonging of an object to any person, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">which is performing an action</span>.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>Він продає свої книги. &mdash; He is selling his books (he as a person is performing an action - selling);</p>

<p>Його книжки дуже відомі. &mdash; His books are very popular (there isn't any action here).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Reflexive pronoun</strong> <strong>себе</strong> defines someone, who is performing an action. It does not have gender, singular/plural or Nominative forms, but has other case forms. Reflexive pronoun can be used for any person, one or many. This is basically all English reflexive pronouns in one. <em>Myself, herself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves, yourselves, oneself</em> will all mean <em>себе</em> in Ukrainian.</p>

<p>Він <span style="text-decoration: underline;">себе</span> не розуміє. &mdash; He does not understand <span style="text-decoration: underline;">himself</span>.</p>

<p>Дівчата <span style="text-decoration: underline;">себе</span> не впізнали. &mdash; Girls did not recognise <span style="text-decoration: underline;">themselves</span>.</p>

<p>Вона купила <span style="text-decoration: underline;">собі</span> нове дзеркало. &mdash; She bought <span style="text-decoration: underline;">herself</span> a new mirror.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Interrogative pronouns</strong> consist of a question about a person (<strong>хто?</strong> who?), an object (<strong>що?</strong> what?), quality (<strong>чий?</strong> whose? <strong>який?</strong> what? <strong>котрий?</strong> which? what?), quantity (<strong>скільки?</strong> how many?).</p>

<p><em>хто, що, скільки</em> change according to cases;</p>

<p><em>чий, який, котрий</em> change according to cases, genders and have singular/plural forms.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Хто</span> ця жінка? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Who</span> is this woman?</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Кого</span> ти шукаєш? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Whom</span> are you looking for? (<em>кого?</em> is a Accusative form of <em>хто?</em>)</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Що</span> ви робите? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">What</span> are you doing?</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Чия</span> це сумка? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Whose</span> bag is this?</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Які</span> книжки ви читаєте? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">What</span> books do read?</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Котра</span> зараз година? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">What (Which)</span> time is it now?</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Скільки</span> тут правил? &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">How many</span> rules are there?</p>

<p>The difference between <em>що? (what?)</em> and <em>який? (what?), котрий? (which? what?)</em> lies within their purpose.</p>

<p><em>що? (what?)</em> serves to ask about an object in opposite to <em>хто? who?</em>:</p>

<p>Хто це? (Who is this?) &mdash; Що це? (What is this?)</p>

<p>Кого ти тут знаєш? (Who do you know here?) &mdash; Що ти тут маєш? (What do you have here?)</p>

<p><em>який? (what?)</em> serves to ask about the quality of a person or an object (mostly):</p>

<p>Які книжки вам подобаються? (What books do you like?)</p>

<p>Який ваш улюблений предмет? (What is your favourite subject?)</p>

<p><em>котрий? (which? what?)</em> serves to ask about quality as well, but the answer is mostly an <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-ordinals.html" rel="nofollow">ordinal numeral</a> which points out the order of the object in the queue.</p>

<p>Котра година? (What time is it (now)?) &mdash; Восьма. (Eight o'clock.)</p>

<p>Котрі у нас місця? (What seats do we have?) &mdash; Дев'яте та десяте. (Ninth and tenth.)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Conjunctive pronouns</strong> the same as interrogative pronouns but without question-marks. They are used according to the same rules as the corresponding interrogative pronouns.</p>

<p>Я знаю, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">хто</span> ти. &mdash; I know <span style="text-decoration: underline;">who</span> you are.</p>

<p>Олівець, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">який</span> ти мені дав, дуже гострий. &mdash; The pencil <span style="text-decoration: underline;">that</span> you gave me is very sharp.</p>

<p>They serve as connection between independent and relative clauses.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Demonstrative pronouns</strong> define: an object/person &mdash; <strong>цей</strong> (this), <strong>той</strong> (that); quality &mdash; <strong>такий</strong> (such); quantity &mdash; <strong>стільки</strong> (this much).</p>

<p>Pronouns <em>цей, той, такий</em> change according to genders, cases and have singular/plural forms (like <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives</a>).</p>

<p>Pronoun <em>стільки</em> change according to cases only.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Defining pronouns</strong> define the quality in general: <strong>весь, увесь, ввесь</strong> (all; whole; everybody); <strong>всякий, усякий</strong> (every; any); <strong>кожний, кожен</strong> (every); <strong>інший</strong> (another); <strong>сам</strong> (self; alone); <strong>самий</strong> (the one; the same). They change according to genders, cases and have singular/plural forms (like <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives</a>).</p>

<p><em>весь, увесь, ввесь</em> defines the completeness of an object or gathering of objects while <em>всякий, усякий</em>, <em>кожний, кожен</em> in return define separate objects in a certain gathering:</p>

<p>Завтра <span style="text-decoration: underline;">всі</span> поїдуть додому. &mdash; Tomorrow <span style="text-decoration: underline;">evebody (all)</span> will go home.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Кожен</span> учень повинен знати розклад. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Every</span> student has to know schedule.</p>

<p><em>інший</em> defines the difference between objects that are being a part of one gathering:</p>

<p>Йому потрібен <span style="text-decoration: underline;">інший</span> репетитор з математики. &mdash; He needs <span style="text-decoration: underline;">another</span> Math tutor.</p>

<p>Pronoun <em>сам</em> emphasizes on the independent role of a specific object. This pronoun is a part of many words (around five hundred) what gives them a reversive or independent meaning: самоаналіз (self-analysis), самозахист (self-defence), самознищення (self-destruction), самовираження (self-expression) etc.</p>

<p>In idioms <em>сам</em> is often combined with a reflexive pronoun <em>себе</em>:</p>

<p>бути самим собою &mdash; to be yourself,</p>

<p>сам собі господар &mdash; (to be) your own master,</p>

<p>сам собі ворог &mdash; (to be) your own enemy,</p>

<p>не вірити самому собі &mdash; not believe yourself.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Indefinite pronouns</strong> define the unknown (indefinite) person, object, quality, quantity: <em>хтось</em> (somebody), <em>щось</em> (something), <em>хто-небудь</em> (somebody; anybody), <em>будь-який</em> (anything), <em>будь-хто</em> (anybody), <em>будь-що</em> (anything) etc. They are made by adding particles <strong>будь-, -небудь, аби-, де-, -сь, казна-, хтозна-</strong> to the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">interrogative pronouns</span> with a hyphen (except <em>-сь</em>).</p>

<p>хто + небудь = хто-небудь,</p>

<p>що + сь = щось,</p>

<p>казна + що = казна-що (who knows what).</p>

<p>Тут хтось є? &mdash; Is anyone (someone) here?</p>

<p>Мені потрібно <span style="text-decoration: underline;">щось</span> купити. &mdash; I need to buy <span style="text-decoration: underline;">something</span>.</p>

<p>Він повірить у <span style="text-decoration: underline;">будь-що</span>. &mdash; He will believe in <span style="text-decoration: underline;">anything</span>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Negative pronouns</strong> define the absence of a person, an object, qualities, quantity: <strong>ніхто</strong> (nobody; no one), <strong>ніщо</strong> (nothing), <strong>ніякий</strong> (no; none; any), <strong>нічий</strong> (nobody's), <strong>ніскільки</strong> (not at all; not a bit; nothing). They are made by adding particle <strong>ні-</strong> to the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">interrogative pronouns</span> and are written together.</p>

<p>ні + хто? = ніхто,</p>

<p>ні + що? = ніщо,</p>

<p>ні + який? = ніякий,</p>

<p>ні + чий? = нічий,</p>

<p>ні + скільки? = ніскільки.</p>

<p>Він <span style="text-decoration: underline;">нічого</span> не пам'ятає. &mdash; He doesn't remember anything. (He does not remember <span style="text-decoration: underline;">nothing</span>.)</p>

<p><em>If there is a preposition between particle and pronoun then they all are written separately.</em></p>

<p>Це не було несподіванкою <span style="text-decoration: underline;">ні для кого</span>. &mdash; This wasn't a surprise for anyone. (This wasn't a surprise <span style="text-decoration: underline;">for no one</span>.)</p>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Numeral: Few more rules]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-15/the-numeral-few-more-rules.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-15/the-numeral-few-more-rules.html Fri, 15 Jun 2012 00:54:37 +0300 <p>Here are some rules on how to use numerals and nouns in pairs:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>After numeral <strong><em>one</em></strong> (even if it is a part of a composite numeral) noun has <strong>Nominative singular</strong> form:</p>

<p>21 день, двадцять один день (21 days);</p>

<p>41 дерево, сорок одне дерево (41 trees);</p>

<p>1 151 зірка, тисяча сто п'ятдесят одна зірка (1 151 stars).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>After numerals <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em>two</em> and more</span> noun has <span style="text-decoration: underline;">plural</span> form:</p>

<p>дві ручки (two pens),</p>

<p>вісім комп'ютерів (eight computers),</p>

<p>шістдесят років (sixty years).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>After numerals <strong><em>two</em></strong>, <strong><em>three</em></strong>, <strong><em>four</em></strong> (even if they are a part of a composite numeral) noun has <strong>Nominative plural</strong> form:</p>

<p>32 метри, тридцять два метри (thirty-two metres);</p>

<p>53 олівці, п'ятдесят три олівці (fifty-three pencils);</p>

<p>364 дні, триста шістдесят чотири дні (three hundred sixty-four days).</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><cut>Read more</cut></p>

<p><em>Exceptions:</em></p>

<p>Nouns that loose their <em>-ин-</em> suffix in plural form and <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-fourth-declension.html" rel="nofollow">fourth declension</a> nouns after numerals <em>two</em>, <em>three</em>, <em>four</em> have <strong>Genitive singular</strong> form:</p>

<p>селян<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ин</span> &mdash; a villager, sing. &mdash; селяни &mdash; pl.;</p>

<p>селянина &mdash; sing., Genitive case.</p>

<p>42 селянина, сорок два селянина (forty-two villagers).</p>

<p>ім'я &mdash; a name, sing., Nominative case,</p>

<p>імені &mdash; sing., Genitive case.</p>

<p>2 імені, два імені (two names);</p>

<p>кошеня &mdash; a kitten, sing., Nominative case,</p>

<p>кошеняти &mdash; sing., Genitive case.</p>

<p>4 кошеняти, чотири кошеняти (four kittens).</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>After numerals <strong><em>five</em> and more</strong> nouns have <strong>Genitive plural</strong> form:</p>

<p>5 сантиметрів, п'ять сантиметрів (five centimetres);</p>

<p>14 кроків, чотирнадцять кроків (fourteen steps);</p>

<p>26 питань, двадцять шість питань (twenty-six questions);</p>

<p>365 днів, триста шістдесят днів (three hundred sixty-five days);</p>

<p>87 кілометрів, вісімдесят сім кілометрів (eighty seven kilometres).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>After <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">assembled numerals</a> (except <em>обидва</em>) nouns have <strong>Genitive plural</strong> form:</p>

<p>двоє кошенят (two kittens),</p>

<p>троє чоловіків (three men),</p>

<p>шестеро дверей (six doors).</p>

<p>After <strong><em>обидва, обидві</em></strong> &mdash; <strong>Nominative plural</strong>:</p>

<p>обидва брати (both brothers),</p>

<p>обидві жінки (both women).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>After numerals <strong><em>two</em></strong>, <strong><em>three</em></strong>, <strong><em>four</em></strong> adjectives usually have <strong>Nominative plural</strong> form (like the noun):</p>

<p>чотири дерев'яні столи (four wooden tables),</p>

<p>дві золоті монети (two golden coins).</p>

<p>However, near the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter nouns</span> adjectives often have <strong>Genitive plural</strong> form:</p>

<p>два зелених дерева (two green trees),</p>

<p>три чистих вікна (three clean windows).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>After numerals <strong><em>тисяча, мільйон, мільярд, нуль</em></strong> nouns always have <strong>Genitive plural</strong> form:</p>

<p>a thousand thoughts: тисяча думок (Nom., sing.; Gen., pl.), тисячею думок (Inst., sing.; Gen., pl.);</p>

<p>a million people: мільйон людей (Nom., sing.; Gen., pl.), мільйонами людей (Inst., pl.; Gen., pl.).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>After <strong><em>fractions</em></strong> nouns always have <strong>Genitive singular</strong> form:</p>

<p>півтори години (one and a half hour),</p>

<p>півтора року (one and a half year).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong><em>Names of the months</em></strong> always have <strong>Genitive</strong> form:</p>

<p>May 3: третє травня (Nom.; Gen.), третього травня (Gen.; Gen.), з третім травня (Inst.; Gen.).</p>

</li>

</ul>

]]>
<![CDATA[Telling time: Hours]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-11/telling-time-hours.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-11/telling-time-hours.html Mon, 11 Jun 2012 22:00:46 +0300 <p>If you want to ask the time you should say:</p>

<p><strong>Котра (зараз) година? &mdash; What time is it (now)?</strong></p>

<p>or</p>

<p><strong>О котрій годині? &mdash; At what time?</strong></p>

<p>година &mdash; hour, <em>feminine</em>,</p>

<p>хвилина &mdash; minute, <em>feminine</em>,</p>

<p>Both of them decline like <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-first-declension.html" rel="nofollow">рука</a>.</p>

<p>Now let's have a closer look on how to tell the time in Ukrainian.</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/27_7655f978fdf927e83b6432ec5a2d051c.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/27_7655f978fdf927e83b6432ec5a2d051c.png" /></div>

<p><cut>Read more</cut></p>

<p>You can tell time in Ukrainian in two ways:</p>

<p><strong>Formal way</strong></p>

<ul>

<li>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Question</span>: <strong>Котра (зараз) година? &mdash; What time is it (now)?</strong></p>

<p>a) &hellip;:00 &mdash; <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-ordinals.html" rel="nofollow">ordinal numeral</a> (Nominative case, feminine, singular) + &ldquo;година&rdquo; (Nominative case, feminine, singular);</p>

<p>b) &hellip;:&hellip; &mdash; ordinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, singular) + [&ldquo;година&rdquo; (Nominative case, feminine, singular)], <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-basic-cardinals.html" rel="nofollow">cardinal numeral</a> (Nominative case, feminine, plural) + [&ldquo;хвилин&rdquo; (Genitive case, feminine, plural)].</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>a) 08:00 &mdash; восьма година (eighth hour);</p>

<p>b) 11:35 &mdash; одинадцята [година], тридцять п'ять [хвилин] (eleventh hour, thirty five minutes).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Question</span>: <strong>О котрій годині? &mdash; At what time?</strong></p>

<p>a) &hellip;:00 &mdash; <strong>о</strong> + ordinal numeral (Dative case, feminine, singular) + [&ldquo;годині&rdquo; (Dative case, feminine, singular)];</p>

<p>b) &hellip;:&hellip; &mdash; <strong>о</strong> + ordinal numeral (Dative case, feminine, singular) + [&ldquo;годині&rdquo; (Dative case, feminine, singular)], cardinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, plural) + [&ldquo;хвилин&rdquo; (Genitive case, feminine, plural)].</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>a) at 08:00 &mdash; о восьмій годині (at eighth hour);</p>

<p>b) at 11:35 &mdash; об* одинадцятій [годині], тридцять п'ять [хвилин] (at eleventh hour, thirty five minutes).</p>

<p>*prepositions <strong>о</strong> and <strong>об</strong> have the same meaning and purpose. <strong>О</strong> is used when the next letter is consonant and <strong>об</strong> when vowel. Thus when telling time <strong>об</strong> is used only with 11.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><strong>Popular way</strong></p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>If it is <span style="text-decoration: underline;">a full hour</span>:</p>

<p>&hellip;:00 &mdash; ordinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, singular) + &ldquo;година&rdquo; (Nominative case, feminine, singular).</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>05:00 &mdash; п'ята година (fifth hour);</p>

<p>09:00 &mdash; дев'ята година (ninth hour).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>If in between <span style="text-decoration: underline;">02 and 30 minutes</span> preposition <strong>на</strong> must be used.</p>

<p>&hellip;:&hellip; &mdash; cardinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, plural) + [&ldquo;хвилин&rdquo; (Genitive case, feminine, plural)] + <strong>на</strong> + ordinal numeral (Accusative case, feminine, singular).</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>09:05 &mdash; п'ять [хвилин] на десяту (five minutes on tenth);</p>

<p>07:10 &mdash; десять [хвилин] на восьму (ten minutes on eighth).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>If in between <span style="text-decoration: underline;">30 and 59 minutes</span> preposition <strong>за</strong> or <strong>до</strong> must be used.</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p>06:55 &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">за</span> п'ять сьома, meaning that <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in/after</span> 5 minutes there will be seven o'clock;</p>

<p>or</p>

<p>06:55 &mdash; п'ять <span style="text-decoration: underline;">до</span> сьомої, meaning there are 5 minutes left <span style="text-decoration: underline;">to</span> 7 o'clock.</p>

<p>Therefore:</p>

<p>&hellip;:&hellip; &mdash; <strong>за</strong> + cardinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, plural) + [&ldquo;хвилин&rdquo; (Genitive case, feminine, plural)] + ordinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, singular);</p>

<p>or</p>

<p>&hellip;:&hellip; &mdash; cardinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, plural) + [&ldquo;хвилин&rdquo; (Genitive case, feminine, plural)] + <strong>до</strong> + ordinal numeral (Genitive case, feminine, singular).</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>09:40 &mdash; <strong>за</strong> двадцять [хвилин] десята (in/after twenty minutes tenth) <em>or</em> двадцять [хвилин] <strong>до</strong> десятої (twenty minutes to ten);</p>

<p>03:55 &mdash; <strong>за</strong> п'ять [хвилин] четверта (in/after five minutes fourth) <em>or</em> п'ять [хвилин] <strong>до</strong> четвертої (five minutes to fourth).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">quarter past&hellip;/quarter to&hellip;</span></p>

<p><strong>a quarter &mdash; чверть</strong> (feminine)</p>

<p>&hellip;:15 &mdash; <strong>чверть</strong> (Nominative case, feminine, singular) + ordinal numeral (Accusative case, feminine, singular);</p>

<p>&hellip;:45 &mdash; за + <strong>чверть</strong> (Nominative case, feminine, singular) + ordinal numeral (Nominative case, feminine, singular);</p>

<p>or</p>

<p>&hellip;:45 &mdash; <strong>чверть</strong> (Nominative case, feminine, singular) + до + ordinal numeral (Genitive case, feminine, singular).</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>02:15 &mdash; чверть на третю (a quarter on third);</p>

<p>02:45 &mdash; за чверть третя (in/after a quarter third) <em>or</em> чверть до третьої (a quarter to third).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">half past&hellip;</span></p>

<p><strong>a half (an hour) &mdash; пів (години)</strong></p>

<p>&hellip;:30 &mdash; <strong>пів</strong> + <strong>на</strong> + ordinal numeral (Accusative case, feminine, singular);</p>

<p>or</p>

<p>&hellip;:30 &mdash; <strong>пів</strong> + до + ordinal numeral (Genitive case, feminine, singular).</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>05:30 &mdash; пів на шосту (a half on sixth);</p>

<p>10:30 &mdash; пів до одинадцятої (a half to eleventh).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">in the morning/afternoon/evening, at night</span></p>

<p>The main parts of the day are:</p>

<p>morning &mdash; ранок (<em>apprx.</em> 05:00-12:00),</p>

<p>noon &mdash; полудень, обід (12:00),</p>

<p>afternoon &mdash; після обіду, день (<em>apprx.</em>12:00-18:00),</p>

<p>evening &mdash; вечір (<em>apprx.</em>18:00-22:00),</p>

<p>midnight &mdash; північ (00:00),</p>

<p>night &mdash; ніч (<em>apprx.</em> 22:00-05:00).</p>

</li>

<li>

<ul>

<li>

<p>If it's morning we tend to add <strong>ранку</strong> (Genitive form of &ldquo;ранок&rdquo;):</p>

<p>07:00 &mdash; сьома [година] ранку (seventh hour of morning);</p>

<p>08:10 &mdash; десять [хвилин] на дев'яту ранку (ten minutes on ninth hour of morning).</p>

<p>Я встаю <span style="text-decoration: underline;">о шостій ранку</span>. &mdash; I wake up at six o'clock in the morning.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>If it's afternoon we tend to add <strong>дня</strong> (Genitive form of &ldquo;день&rdquo;):</p>

<p>15:00 &mdash; третя [година] дня (third hour of day);</p>

<p>13:40 &mdash; за двадцять [хвилин] друга дня (in/after twenty minutes second hour of day).</p>

<p>Зараз <span style="text-decoration: underline;">за п'ять четверта дня</span>. &mdash; It is five minutes to four in the afternoon now.</p>

<p>Ми будемо дивитись фільм <span style="text-decoration: underline;">о другій дня</span>. &mdash; We will watch the movie <span style="text-decoration: underline;">at two o'clock in the afternoon</span>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>If it's evening we tend to add <strong>вечора</strong> (Genitive form of &ldquo;вечір&rdquo;):</p>

<p>18:00 &mdash; шоста [година] вечора (sixth hour of evening);</p>

<p>20:20 &mdash; двадцять [хвилин] на восьму вечора (twenty minutes on eighth hour of evening).</p>

<p>Він прийматиме ванну <span style="text-decoration: underline;">о сьомій вечора</span>. &mdash; He will be having a bath at seven o'clock in the evening.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>If it's night we tend to add <strong>ночі</strong> (Genitive form of &ldquo;ніч&rdquo;):</p>

<p>02:00 &mdash; друга [година] ночі (second hour of night).</p>

<p>Телефон задзвенів <span style="text-decoration: underline;">о першій ночі</span>. &mdash; The phone rang at one o'clock at night.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>The time intervals are approximate, especially for evening, night and morning. Some can tell that 23:00 is still evening, or that 03:00 is already morning and so on. One say that morning begings when the sun sets and others can still say three o'clock in the morning, even though it's pitch black outside. If you feel like it's too late to say &lsquo;in the evening', say &lsquo;at night', as long as people understand what do you mean.</p>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[Telling time: Days of the week]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-days-of-the-week.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-days-of-the-week.html Sun, 10 Jun 2012 15:21:42 +0300 <p>In the previous article we were talking about <a href="/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-seasons-months.html" rel="nofollow">seasons and months</a>. Now let's explore days of the week.</p>

<p>Every week consists of seven days and begins from Monday (понеділок) and ends with Sunday (неділя).</p>

<p>Days of the week in Ukrainian language are written in lower-cases.</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/25_dff4f0de1053b57874b0cd1f6690314a.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/25_dff4f0de1053b57874b0cd1f6690314a.png" /></div>

<p>Monday &mdash; понеділок <em>(masc.)</em>; понеділки <em>(pl.)</em>;</p>

<p>Tueasday &mdash; вівторок <em>(masc.)</em>; вівторки <em>(pl.)</em>;</p>

<p>Wednesday &mdash; середа <em>(fem.)</em>; середи <em>(pl.)</em>;</p>

<p>Thursday &mdash; четвер <em>(masc.)</em>; четверги <em>(pl.)</em>;</p>

<p>Friday &mdash; п'ятниця <em>(fem.)</em>; п'ятниці <em>(pl.)</em>;</p>

<p>Saturday &mdash; субота <em>(fem.)</em>; суботи <em>(pl.)</em>;</p>

<p>Sunday &mdash; неділя <em>(fem.)</em>; неділі <em>(pl.)</em>.</p>

<p><cut>Read more</cut></p>

<h1>How to tell</h1>

<h2>on Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/&hellip;?</h2>

<p>English: on + day of the week;</p>

<p>Ukrainian: <strong>у</strong> + <span style="text-decoration: underline;">day of the week</span> (<strong>Accusative case</strong>).</p>

<p>on Monday &mdash; у понеділок</p>

<p>on Tuesday &mdash; у вівторок</p>

<p>on Wednesday &mdash; у середу</p>

<p>on Thursday &mdash; у четвер</p>

<p>on Friday &mdash; у п'ятницю</p>

<p>on Saturday &mdash; у суботу</p>

<p>on Saturday &mdash; у неділю</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p>We are going to the theatre <span style="text-decoration: underline;">on Friday</span>. &mdash; Ми підемо до театру <span style="text-decoration: underline;">у п'ятницю</span>.</p>

<h2>last/this/next Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/&hellip;?</h2>

<p><em>When?</em> = last/this/next (<strong>Genitive case</strong>) + day of the week (<strong>Genitive case</strong>)</p>

<p><em>What?</em> = last/this/next (<strong>Nominative case</strong>) + day of the week (<strong>Nominative case</strong>)</p>

<p><strong>last</strong> &mdash; минулий (masculine), минуле (neuter), минула (feminine);</p>

<p><strong>this</strong> &mdash; цей (masculine), це (neuter), ця (feminine);</p>

<p><strong>next</strong> &mdash; наступний (masculine), наступне (neuter), наступна (feminine).</p>

<p><em>When?</em></p>

<p>last Monday/Tuesday/Thursday &mdash; минулого понеділка/вівторка/четверга</p>

<p>last Wednesday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday &mdash; минулої середи/п'ятниці/суботи/неділі</p>

<p>this Monday/Tuesday/Thursday &mdash; цього понеділка/вівторка/четверга</p>

<p>this Wednesday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday &mdash; цієї середи/п'ятниці/суботи/неділі</p>

<p>next Monday/Tuesday/Thursday &mdash; наступного понеділка/вівторка/четверга</p>

<p>next Wednesday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday &mdash; наступної середи/п'ятниці/суботи/неділі</p>

<p><em>Examples:</em></p>

<p>They don't work <span style="text-decoration: underline;">this Wednesday</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Цієї середи</span> вони не працюють.</p>

<p>When do they not work? &mdash; This Wednesday.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">This Wednesday</span> is very cold. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Ця середа</span> &mdash; дуже холодна.</p>

<p>What Wednesday? &mdash; This Wednesday.</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[Telling time: Seasons, months]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-seasons-months.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-10/telling-time-seasons-months.html Sun, 10 Jun 2012 08:58:02 +0300 <p>In this set of articles I am going to write about time and everything (as much as I can) what is connected to it.</p>

<p>First of all, if you want to understand how to tell "what time is it now?" or to talk about when and where were you going on vacation or things like that, you will need to remember about grammar, of course, and proper usage of nouns (<a href="/article/2011-01-22/the-noun-gender.html" rel="nofollow">gender</a>, <a href="/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">cases</a>), <a href="/article/2011-02-01/the-preposition-location-and-destination.html" rel="nofollow">prepositions</a>, <a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">numerals</a> and other parts of speech.</p>

<p>Let's begin with some vocabulary and write down names of seasons and months in Ukrainian:</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/24_eef8d018fcca2530793f7337b78fc976.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/24_eef8d018fcca2530793f7337b78fc976.png" /></div>

<p>season &mdash; пора року (пора &mdash; feminine); пори року (pl.)</p>

<p>What season is it now? &mdash; Яка зараз пора року?</p>

<p>What seasons do you know? &mdash; Які пори року ти знаєш?</p>

<p>month &mdash; місяць (masculine); місяці (pl.)</p>

<p>What month is it now? &mdash; Який зараз місяць?</p>

<p>How many months are there in a year? &mdash; Скільки в році місяців?</p>

<p><cut>Read more</cut></p>

<p>Notes:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>The new year begins on the 1st of January (Gregorian calendar).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Names of seasons, months are written in lower-case letters.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><em>Зима, весна, осінь</em> (winter, spring, autumn) are <span style="text-decoration: underline;">feminine</span> and <em>літо</em> (summer) is <span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter</span>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">All months are masculine</span>.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p>Names of seasons, months are all nouns and obviously when you are making sentences using them, they will change according to <a href="/article/2011-01-22/the-noun-gender.html" rel="nofollow">genders</a> and <a href="/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">cases</a>. To keep yourself out of trouble of making mistakes and figuring out what case to use, here are some useful tips:</p>

<h1>How to tell</h1>

<h2>in winter/spring/summer/autumn?</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>in winter: <strong>взимку</strong> (prep. в + зима) <em>or</em> <strong>зимою</strong> (Instrumental case)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>in spring: <strong>навесні</strong> (prep. на + весна) <em>or</em> <strong>весною</strong> (Inst. case)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>in summer: <strong>влітку</strong> (prep. в + літо) <em>or</em> <strong>літом</strong> (Inst. case)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>in autumn: <strong>восени</strong> (prep. в + осінь) <em>or</em> <strong>осінню</strong> (Inst. case)</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><em>взимку, навесні, влітку, восени</em> already have prepositions so you don't have to use additional ones and <em>зимою, весною, літом, осінню</em> are the same nouns <em>зима, весна, літо, осінь</em> respectively but chaged according to <strong>Instrumental case</strong> which is used when telling "when?" + season.</p>

<p><strong>For example:</strong></p>

<p>I like skateboarding <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in winter</span>. &mdash; Я люблю кататись на сноуборді <span style="text-decoration: underline;">взимку</span>. / Я люблю кататись на сноуборді <span style="text-decoration: underline;">зимою</span>.</p>

<p>The snowdrops bloom <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in spring</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Навесні</span> розцвітають підсніжники. / <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Весною</span> розцвітають підсніжники.</p>

<p>I am going to visit my grandmother <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in summer</span>. &mdash; Я збираюсь провідати свою бабусю <span style="text-decoration: underline;">влітку</span>. / Я збираюсь провідати свою бабусю <span style="text-decoration: underline;">літом</span>.</p>

<p>Children go to school <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in autumn</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Восени</span> діти йдуть до школи. / <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Осінню</span> діти йдуть до школи.</p>

<h2>last/this/next winter/spring/summer/autumn?</h2>

<p><em>When?</em> = last/this/next (<strong>Genitive case</strong>) + winter/spring/summer/autumn (<strong>Genitive case</strong>)</p>

<p><em>What?</em> = last/this/next (<strong>Nominative case</strong>) + winter/spring/summer/autumn (<strong>Nominative case</strong>)</p>

<p><strong>last</strong> &mdash; минулий (masculine), минуле (neuter), минула (feminine);</p>

<p><strong>this</strong> &mdash; цей (masculine), це (neuter), ця (feminine);</p>

<p><strong>next</strong> &mdash; наступний (masculine), наступне (neuter), наступна (feminine).</p>

<p><em>When?</em></p>

<p>last winter/spring/autumn &mdash; минулої зими/весни/осені</p>

<p>last summer &mdash; минулого літа</p>

<p>this winter/spring/autumn &mdash; цієї зими/весни/осені</p>

<p>this summer &mdash; цього літа</p>

<p>next winter/spring/autumn &mdash; наступної зими/весни/осені</p>

<p>next summer &mdash; наступного літа</p>

<p><em>Example:</em></p>

<p>It was very hot <span style="text-decoration: underline;">last summer</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Минулого літа</span> було дуже спекотно.</p>

<p>When was it hot? &mdash; Last summer.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">This summer</span> is hot. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Це літо</span> &mdash; спекотне.</p>

<p>What summer? &mdash; This summer.</p>

<h2>in January/March/September/&hellip;?</h2>

<p>First of all you will need <a href="/article/2011-02-01/the-preposition-location-and-destination.html" rel="nofollow">prepositions</a> <em>у, в</em>. These prepositions require usage of <strong>Locative case</strong> if asked "when?".</p>

<p>Nouns which represent months <em>грудень, січень, березень, квітень, травень, червень, липень, серпень, вересень, жовтень</em> decline like ones from the second declension, soft group (e.g. <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-second-declension.html" rel="nofollow">день</a>), <em>листопад</em> like one from the second declension, hard group (e.g. <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-second-declension.html" rel="nofollow">чоловік</a>) and <em>лютий</em> like adjectives from hard group (e.g. <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">високий</a>).</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>Summer holidays begin <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in June</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">У червні</span> починаються літні канікули.</p>

<p>June: червень &mdash; Nominative case;</p>

<p>(in) June: (у) червні &mdash; Locative case.</p>

<p>We will go to Turkey <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in November</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">У листопаді</span> ми поїдемо до Туреччини.</p>

<p>November: листопад &mdash; Nominative case;</p>

<p>(in) November: (у) листопаді &mdash; Locative case.</p>

<p>It is very cold <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in February</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">У лютому</span> дуже холодно.</p>

<p>February: лютий &mdash; Nominative case;</p>

<p>(in) February: (у) лютому &mdash; Locative case.</p>

<h2>21 of January/March/September/&hellip;?</h2>

<p>English construction looks like: (the) date (ordinal numeral) + of + month (noun);</p>

<p>Ukrainian construction looks like: <strong>date</strong> (<a href="/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-ordinals.html" rel="nofollow">ordinal numeral</a>, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter</span>, <strong>Nominative case</strong>) + <strong>month</strong> (noun, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">masculine</span>, <strong>Genitive case</strong>).</p>

<p>If you pay attention to rules you probably may ask why ordinal numeral does not have the same gender as the noun. Well, this is because it is connected to the noun &ldquo;число&rdquo; (means &lsquo;number' and is neuter) which is omitted and is not used in phrases but still has grammatical influence. Basically when we say, for example, "тридцяте грудня" (thirtieth of December) we in fact mean "тридцяте (число) грудня" (thirtieth (number) of December). Again, we never say or write "число" in this constructions it's just for you to understand why there is the mismatch of genders.</p>

<p>More examples:</p>

<p>What day is it today? &mdash; Який сьогодні день?</p>

<p>What date is it today? &mdash; Яке сьогодні число?</p>

<p>Today is <span style="text-decoration: underline;">the 1st of January</span>. &mdash; Сьогодні <span style="text-decoration: underline;">перше січня</span>.</p>

<p>Tomorrow will be <span style="text-decoration: underline;">13 of July</span>. &mdash; Завтра буде <span style="text-decoration: underline;">тринадцяте липняя</span>.</p>

<p>One more thing to note. In English one may say, for example, 5 of November or November 5 but in Ukrainian both of them are translated as: &ldquo;п'яте листопада&rdquo;.</p>

<h2>on 21 of January/March/September/&hellip;?</h2>

<p>English construction looks like: on + date (ordinal numeral) + of + month (noun);</p>

<p>Ukrainian construction looks like: date (<strong>ordinal numeral</strong>, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter</span>, <strong>Genitive case</strong>) + month (<strong>noun</strong>, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">masculine</span>, <strong>Genitive case</strong>).</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>When was he born? &mdash; Коли він народився?</p>

<p>He was born <span style="text-decoration: underline;">on 14th of October</span>. &mdash; Він народився <span style="text-decoration: underline;">чотирнадцятого жовтня</span>.</p>

<h2>in 1895, in the 18th century etc.?</h2>

<p>In English when telling the year the cardinal numeral is used. Besides fisrt come &lsquo;hundreds' then &lsquo;tens' and &lsquo;ones', so the numeral divides it in two halves.</p>

<p>In Ukrainian the ordinal numeral is used and it is not dived in two halves. The word <em>рік</em> (year) is also added in the end of the numeral when talking about year.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>English: 1988 = 19 80-8 &mdash; nineteen hundred and eighty-eight, <em>or</em> nineteen eighty-eight</p>

<p>Ukrainian: 1988 = 1000 900 80 8 &mdash; тисяча дев'ятсот вісімдесят восьмий (рік)</p>

<p>in 1988 = in + year (cardinal numeral) = year (<strong>ordinal numeral</strong>, masculine, <strong>Genitive case</strong>) + <strong>року</strong> (noun, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">masculine</span>, <strong>Genitive case</strong>)</p>

<p><em>or</em></p>

<p><strong>у (в)</strong> + year (<strong>ordinal numeral</strong>, masculine, <strong>Locative case</strong>) + <strong>році</strong> (noun, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">masculine</span>, <strong>Locative case</strong>)</p>

<p>Ray Bradbury was born <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in 1920</span>. &mdash; Рей Бредбері народився <span style="text-decoration: underline;">1920 року</span>. &mdash; Рей Бредбері народився <span style="text-decoration: underline;">тисяча дев'ятсот двадцятого року</span>.</p>

<p><em>About centuries:</em></p>

<p>the 18th century = the + ordinal numeral + &lsquo;century' = <strong>ordinal numeral</strong>, neuter, <strong>Nominative case</strong> + <strong>століття</strong> (noun, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter</span>, <strong>Nominative case</strong>) = вісімнадцяте століття;</p>

<p>in the 18th century = in + the + ordinal numeral = <strong>у</strong> + <strong>ordinal numeral</strong>, neuter, <strong>Locative case</strong> + <strong>столітті</strong> (noun, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter</span>, <strong>Locative case</strong>) = у вісімнадцятому столітті.</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Numeral: Cases]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-cases.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-cases.html Fri, 08 Jun 2012 21:38:01 +0300 <p>Here are types of declining of numerals in Ukrainian language:</p>

<h2>1. Declining of numeral <strong>один</strong> (one)</h2>

<p>Numeral <em>один (одна, одне, одні)</em> is declined as pronoun <em>той (та, те, ті)</em>.</p>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">од<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>го</span></td>

<td>одні<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span> (одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ї</span>)</td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span></td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>й</span></td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>од<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н (одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>го</span>)</td>

<td>одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span> (одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>х</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>м</span></td>

<td>одні<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span> (одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span>)</td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>му</span></td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>й</span></td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about declining of numerals</cut></p>

<h2>2. Declining of numerals <strong>два</strong> (two), <strong>три</strong> (three), <strong>чотири</strong> (four)</h2>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>masculine/neuter</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>feminime</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;">&nbsp;</td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;">&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: left;">два</td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: left;">дві</td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: left;">три</td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: left;">чотири</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">трь<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">чотирь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">трь<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">чотирь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">два (дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span>)</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дві</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">три (трьох)</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">чот<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ри (чотирь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">трь<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">чотир<span style="color: #ff0000;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">дв<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">трь<span style="color: #ff0000;">ох</span></td>

<td style="text-align: left;">чотирь<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>3. Declining of numerals <strong>п'ять-десять</strong> (5-10) and with <em>-дцять</em>, <em>-десят</em></h2>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>7</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>13</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>50</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 25%;">сім</td>

<td style="width: 25%;">трин<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #33cccc;">дцять</span></td>

<td style="width: 25%;">п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">дес<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>сем<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span> (сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>)</td>

<td>трина<span style="color: #33cccc;">дцят</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">десят</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>сем<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span> (сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span>)</td>

<td>трина<span style="color: #33cccc;">дцят</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">десят</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>сім (сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>)</td>

<td>трин<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #33cccc;">дцять</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">дес<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>сьом<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span> (сім<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>)</td>

<td>трина<span style="color: #33cccc;">дцять</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">десять</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>сем<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span> (сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>)</td>

<td>трина<span style="color: #33cccc;">дцят</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">десят</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>4. Declining of numerals <strong>сорок</strong> (40), <strong>дев'яносто</strong> (90), <strong>сто</strong> (100)</h2>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>40</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>90</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>100</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 25%;" rowspan="2">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>рок</td>

<td style="width: 25%;" rowspan="2">дев'ян<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>сто</td>

<td style="width: 25%;" rowspan="2">сто</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td rowspan="4">сорок<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td rowspan="4">дев'ян<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td rowspan="4">ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>5. Declining of numerals <strong>двісті-чотириста</strong> (200-400) and with <em>-сот</em></h2>

<p>Declining these numerals will change both their parts. Though written together these numerals are pronounced as separate words.</p>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>200</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>300</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>500</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 25%;">дв<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #33cccc;">і</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 25%;">тр<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #33cccc;">и</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 25%;">п'ятс<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>т</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>дв<span style="color: #33cccc;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>т</td>

<td>тр<span style="color: #33cccc;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>т</td>

<td>п'ят<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #33cccc;">и</span>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>т</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>дв<span style="color: #33cccc;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>тр<span style="color: #33cccc;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #33cccc;">и</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>дв<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #33cccc;">і</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>тр<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #33cccc;">и</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>п'ятс<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>т</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>дв<span style="color: #33cccc;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>тр<span style="color: #33cccc;">ьом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">ьм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span> (п'ят<span style="color: #33cccc;">ьом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span>)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>дв<span style="color: #33cccc;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

<td>тр<span style="color: #33cccc;">ь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

<td>п'ят<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #33cccc; text-decoration: underline;">и</span></span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>6. Declining of numerals <strong>тисяча</strong> (1,000), <strong>мільйон</strong> (1,000,000), <strong>мільйярд</strong> (1,000,000,000), <strong>нуль</strong> (0)</h2>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>0</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>1000</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">нуль</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">нул<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>нул<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>нул<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>нул<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ві</span></td>

<td>нул<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>нуль</td>

<td>нул<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>нул<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м</span></td>

<td>нул<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>ми</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ею</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>нул<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ві</span></td>

<td>нул<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>х</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>сяч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>1000000</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>1000000000</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ів</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">ів</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span></td>

<td>мільй<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>рд<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>7. Declining of assembled numerals</h2>

<p>When declining these numerals have the same forms as the corresponding cardinal numerals, but only secondary ones (which are in brackets).</p>

<div>

<table style="height: 228px; width: 430px;" border="1" width="384" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>7</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 60%;">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м<span style="color: #ff0000;">еро</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>сім<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>сім<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>8. Declining of fractions</h2>

<p>When declining fractions, the first part changes as cardinal and second as ordinal numeral.</p>

<div>

<table style="height: 228px; width: 430px;" border="1" width="382" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>1/2</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 60%;">одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span> др<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>г<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>одні<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ї</span> (одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ї</span>) др<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>г<span style="color: #ff0000;">ої</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>й</span> др<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>г<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>одн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">у</span> др<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>г<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>одні<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span> (одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span>) др<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>г<span style="color: #ff0000;">ою</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>одн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>й</span> др<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>г<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>9. Declining of ordinal numerals</h2>

<p>Ordinal numeral <em>третій (третя, третє, треті)</em> decline like adjectives from <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">soft group</a> and the rest decline like adjectives from <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">hard group</a>.</p>

<h2>10. Declining of composite cardinal numerals</h2>

<p>When declining composite cardinals every numeral changes.</p>

<div>

<table style="height: 248px; width: 430px;" border="1" width="428" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>345</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 60%;">тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span> с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>рок п'ять</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>трь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>хс<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>т сорок<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span> п'ят<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>трь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>мст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span> сорок<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span> п'ять<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span> с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>рок п'ять</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>трьом<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span> сорок<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span> п'ятьм<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>трь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>хст<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span> сорок<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span> п'ят<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

<h2>11. Declining of composite ordinal numerals</h2>

<p>When declining composite ordinals only last numeral changes.</p>

<div>

<table style="width: 430px;" border="1" width="428" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="width: 20%; text-align: center;"><strong>139th</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 60%;">сто тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>дцять дев'<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ий</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>сто тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>дцять дев'<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>сто тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>дцять дев'<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>сто тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>дцять дев'<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ий</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>сто тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>дцять дев'<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>сто тр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>дцять дев'<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>Stresses are underlined.</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Numeral: Ordinals]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-ordinals.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-ordinals.html Fri, 08 Jun 2012 16:49:07 +0300 <p><strong>Ordinal</strong> numerals (with some exceptions) are formed by adding endings <strong>-ий/ій</strong>, <strong>-а/я</strong>, <strong>-е/є</strong>, <strong>-і</strong> to the corresponding cardinal numerals depending on the gender and number.</p>

<p><strong>-ий/ій</strong> &mdash; masculine, singular;</p>

<p><strong>-а/я</strong> &mdash; feminine, singular;</p>

<p><strong>-е/є</strong> &mdash; neuter, singular;</p>

<p><strong>-і</strong> &mdash; plural.</p>

<h2>1-10</h2>

<p>1 &mdash; перший, перша, перше, перші</p>

<p>2 &mdash; другий, друга, друге, другі</p>

<p>3 &mdash; третій, третя, третє, треті</p>

<p>4 &mdash; четвертий, четверта, четверте, четверті</p>

<p>5 &mdash; п'ятий, п'ята, п'яте, п'яті</p>

<p>6 &mdash; шостий, шоста, шосте, шості</p>

<p>7 &mdash; сьомий, сьома, сьоме, сьомі</p>

<p>8 &mdash; восьмий, восьма, восьме, восьмі</p>

<p>9 &mdash; дев'ятий, дев'ята, дев'яте, дев'яті</p>

<p>10 &mdash; десятий, десята, десяте, десяті</p>

<p><cut>More ordinal numerals</cut></p>

<h2>11-19</h2>

<p>11 &mdash; одинадцят<strong>ий</strong>, одинадцят<strong>а</strong>, одинадцят<strong>е</strong>, одинадцят<strong>і</strong></p>

<p>12 &mdash; дванадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>13 &mdash; тринадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>14 &mdash; чотирнадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>15 &mdash; п'ятнадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>16 &mdash; шістнадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>17 &mdash; сімнадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>18 &mdash; вісімнадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>19 &mdash; дев'ятнадцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<h2>20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90</h2>

<p>20 &mdash; двадцят<strong>ий</strong>, двадцят<strong>а</strong>, двадцят<strong>е</strong>, двадцят<strong>і</strong></p>

<p>30 &mdash; тридцят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>40 &mdash; сороков<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>50 &mdash; п'ятдесят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>60 &mdash; шістдесят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>70 &mdash; сімдесят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>80 &mdash; вісімдесят<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>90 &mdash; дев'яност<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<h2>100, 1000, 1000000, 1000000000</h2>

<p>100 &mdash; сот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>1,000 &mdash; тисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>1,000,000 &mdash; мільйонн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>1,000,000,000 &mdash; мільйярдн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<h2>200, 300, 400, 500, 700, 800, 900</h2>

<p>200 &mdash; двохсот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>300 &mdash; трьохсот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>400 &mdash; чотирьохсот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>500 &mdash; п'ятсот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>600 &mdash; шістсот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>700 &mdash; семисот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>800 &mdash; восьмисот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>900 &mdash; дев'ятисот<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<h2>2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000</h2>

<p>2000 &mdash; двохтисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>3000 &mdash; трьохтисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>4000 &mdash; чотирьохтисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>5000 &mdash; п'ятитисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>6000 &mdash; шеститисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>7000 &mdash; семитисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>8000 &mdash; восьмитисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<p>9000 &mdash; дев'ятитисячн<strong>ий/а/е/і</strong></p>

<h2>Composite ordinal numerals</h2>

<p>Composite numerals consist of two or more numerals and are written separately. Only the last numeral is changed into ordinal, the rest are cardinals.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>21 &mdash; двадцять перший, двадцять перша, двадцять перше</p>

<p>22 &mdash; двадцять другий, двадцять друга, двадцять друге</p>

<p>23 &mdash; двадцять третій, двадцять третя, двадцять третє</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>66 &mdash; шістдесят шостий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>87 &mdash; вісімдесят сьомий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>102 &mdash; сто другий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>134 &mdash; сто тридцять четвертий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>292 &mdash; двісті дев'яносто другий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>1007 &mdash; тисяча сьомий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>3584 &mdash; три тисячі вісімдесят четвертий/а/е/і</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>10508 &mdash; десять тисяч п'ятсот восьмий/а/е/і</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Numeral: Basic cardinals]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-basic-cardinals.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-basic-cardinals.html Fri, 08 Jun 2012 16:15:45 +0300 <h2>1-10</h2>

<p>1 &mdash; один, одна, одне*</p>

<p>2 &mdash; два, дві**</p>

<p>3 &mdash; три</p>

<p>4 &mdash; чотири</p>

<p>5 &mdash; п'ять</p>

<p>6 &mdash; шість</p>

<p>7 &mdash; сім</p>

<p>8 &mdash; вісім</p>

<p>9 &mdash; дев'ять</p>

<p>10 &mdash; десять</p>

<p><cut>more cardinal numerals</cut></p>

<p>*one &mdash; один (masculine), одна (feminine), одне (neuter), одні (plural);</p>

<p>**two &mdash; два (masculine, neuter), дві (feminine).</p>

<p>The rest cardinals do not have genders or numbers.</p>

<h2>11-19</h2>

<p>These numerals are formed by adding <strong>-надцять</strong> to the corresponding number of units:</p>

<p>11 &mdash; одинадцять (оди<s>н</s> + надцять)</p>

<p>12 &mdash; дванадцять (два + надцять)</p>

<p>13 &mdash; тринадцять (три + надцять)</p>

<p>14 &mdash; чотирнадцять (чотир<s>и</s> + надцять)</p>

<p>15 &mdash; п'ятнадцять (п'ят<s>ь</s> + надцять)</p>

<p>16 &mdash; шістнадцять (шіст<s>ь</s> + надцять)</p>

<p>17 &mdash; сімнадцять (сім + надцять)</p>

<p>18 &mdash; вісімнадцять (вісім + надцять)</p>

<p>19 &mdash; дев'ятнадцять (дев'ят<s>ь</s> + надцять)</p>

<h2>20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90</h2>

<p>Numerals <strong>20</strong> and <strong>30</strong> are formed by adding <em>-дцять</em> to the numerals 2 and 3 respectively:</p>

<p>20 &mdash; двадцять (два + дцять)</p>

<p>30 &mdash; тридцять (три + дцять)</p>

<p><strong>40</strong> &mdash; сорок</p>

<p>Numerals <strong>50</strong>, <strong>60</strong>, <strong>70</strong>, <strong>80</strong> are formed by adding suffix <em>-десят</em> to the numerals 5, 6, 7, 8 respectively:</p>

<p>50 &mdash; п'ятдесят (п'ять + десят)</p>

<p>60 &mdash; шістдесят (шість + десят)</p>

<p>70 &mdash; сімдесят (сім + десят)</p>

<p>80 &mdash; вісімдесят (вісім + десят)</p>

<p><strong>90</strong> &mdash; дев'яносто</p>

<h2>100, 1000, 1000000, 1000000000</h2>

<p>100 &mdash; сто</p>

<p>1,000 &mdash; тисяча</p>

<p>1,000,000 &mdash; мільйон</p>

<p>1,000,000,000 &mdash; мільйярд</p>

<h2>200, 300, 400, 500, 700, 800, 900</h2>

<p><strong>200</strong> &mdash; двісті</p>

<p>Numerals <strong>300</strong>, <strong>400</strong> are formed by adding suffix <em>-ста</em> to the numerals 3, 4 respectively:</p>

<p>300 &mdash; триста (три + ста)</p>

<p>400 &mdash; чотириста (чотири + ста)</p>

<p>Numerals <strong>500</strong>, <strong>600</strong>, <strong>700</strong>, <strong>800</strong>, <strong>900</strong> are formed by adding suffix <em>-сот</em> to the numerals 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 respectively:</p>

<p>500 &mdash; п'ятсот (п'ять + сот)</p>

<p>600 &mdash; шістсот (шість + сот)</p>

<p>700 &mdash; сімсот (сім + сот)</p>

<p>800 &mdash; вісімсот (вісім + сот)</p>

<p>900 &mdash; дев'ятсот (дев'ять + сот)</p>

<h2>2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6000, 7000, 8000, 9000</h2>

<p>2000 &mdash; дві тисячі</p>

<p>3000 &mdash; три тисячі</p>

<p>4000 &mdash; чотири тисячі</p>

<p>5000 &mdash; п'ять тисяч</p>

<p>6000 &mdash; шість тисяч</p>

<p>7000 &mdash; сім тисяч</p>

<p>8000 &mdash; вісім тисяч</p>

<p>9000 &mdash; дев'ять тисяч</p>

<h2>Composite basic numerals</h2>

<p>Composite numerals consist of two or more numerals and are written separately.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>21 &mdash; двадцять один, двадцять одна, двадцять одне</p>

<p>22 &mdash; двадцять два, двадцять дві</p>

<p>23 &mdash; двадцять три</p>

<p>24 &mdash; двадцять чотири</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>66 &mdash; шістдесят шість</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>87 &mdash; вісімдесят сім</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>102 &mdash; сто два, сто дві</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>134 &mdash; сто тридцять чотири</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>292 &mdash; двісті дев'яносто два</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>1007 &mdash; тисяча сім</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>3584 &mdash; три тисячі п'ятсот вісімдесят чотири</p>

<p>&hellip;</p>

<p>10508 &mdash; десять тисяч п'ятсот вісім</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Numeral: General Information]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-general-information.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-06-08/the-numeral-general-information.html Fri, 08 Jun 2012 15:03:35 +0300 <p>Numerals are devided into cardinals (cardinal numerals) and ordinals (ordinal numerals).</p>

<p>In turn <strong>cardinals</strong> are divided into:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>basic cardinals: нуль (zero), один (one), два (two), три (three), чотирнадцять (fourteen), сто десять (hundred and ten), тисяча (thousand) etc.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>fractions: одна шоста (1/6), дві сьомих (2/7), пів (half), півтора (one and a half) etc.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>assembled: двоє (two), четверо (four), п'ятеро (five) etc.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>undesignated cardinals: багато (many/much), мало (few/little), кілька (few/little) etc.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><strong>Ordinal</strong> numerals are formed by adding endings <strong>-ий/ій</strong>, <strong>-а/я</strong>, <strong>-е/є</strong>, <strong>-і</strong> to the corresponding cardinal numerals depending on the gender and number, which makes them look like <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives</a> of <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html" rel="nofollow">hard and soft groups</a>.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>дванадцять (twelve) + ий = дванадцятий (twelfth): masculine, singular;</p>

<p>дванадцять (12) + а = дванадцята (12th): feminine , singular;</p>

<p>дванадцять (12) + е = дванадцяте (12th): neuter , singular;</p>

<p>дванадцять (12) + і = дванадцяті (12th): plural.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about numerals</cut></p>

<p>Overall numerals can be:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p><strong>simple</strong> numerals with one radical: один (1), три (2), сто (100), перший (first);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>complex</strong> numerals with two or more radicals: одинадцять (11), п'ятнадцять (15);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>composite</strong> numerals which consist of two or more simple or complex numerals: сто двадцять (120), триста сорок (340).</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>Notes:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Cardinal numerals change according to cases but do not have genders.</p>

<p>Exceptions are:</p>

<p>one - один (masculine), одна (feminine), одне (neuter), одні (plural);</p>

<p>two - два (masculine, neuter), дві (feminine);</p>

<p>both - обидва (masculine, neuter), обидві (feminine);</p>

<p>one and a half - півтора (masculine, neuter), півтори (feminine).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Some assembled cardinals have the same translation as the basic cardinals (e.g. два, двоє &mdash; two) but are for the <em>most part</em> used with nouns portraying living beings and nouns which have only plural form.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>четверо хлопців (four boys), семеро ягнят (seven lambs), троє дівчат (three girls);</p>

<p>восьмеро ножиць (eight scissors), троє дверей (three doors):</p>

<p>ножиці (scissors), двері (doors) in Ukrainian language have only plural forms.</p>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Adverb: General information]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-02-10/the-adverb-general-information.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2012-02-10/the-adverb-general-information.html Tue, 21 Feb 2012 23:53:58 +0200 <p>The adverb is an unchangable part of speech that defines means of action, state or other means.</p>

<p>Unlike other independent parts of speech (e.g. the <a href="/article/2011-01-22/the-noun-gender.html" rel="nofollow">noun</a> or <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-general-information.html" rel="nofollow">adjective</a>) the adverb does not have genders, declensions, singular or plural forms.</p>

<p>Adverbs are created by changing other parts of speech like nouns, adjectives and pronouns.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p>ніч (night) &mdash; вночі (at night): noun &mdash; adverb</p>

<p>швидкий (quick) &mdash; швидко (quickly): adjective &mdash; adverb</p>

<p>мій (my) &mdash; по-моєму (roughly means "as for me"): pronoun &mdash; adverb</p>

<p>Adverbs can be divided in two main groups:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Adverbs of quality, quantity and manner.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Adverbs of time, place, intention and cause.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p><cut>Read more about adverbs</cut></p>

<h1>Adverbs of quality, quantity and manner </h1>

<h2>Adverbs of quality and manner: how?</h2>

<p><strong>Adverbs of quality</strong> and most of adverbs of <strong>manner</strong> end with <strong>-о</strong>, <strong>-е</strong> and are created by adding suffixes <strong>-о</strong>, <strong>-е</strong> to the stem of adjectives.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p><strong>гарний</strong> (beautiful) &mdash; <strong>гарно</strong> (beautifully)</p>

<p>Він написав <span style="text-decoration: underline;">гарний</span> вірш. &mdash; He has written (wrote) a <span style="text-decoration: underline;">beautiful</span> poem.</p>

<p>Він <span style="text-decoration: underline;">гарно</span> пише вірші. &mdash; He writes poems <span style="text-decoration: underline;">beautifully</span>.</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/16_14f020d67ed89fc03822df06084c25de.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/16_14f020d67ed89fc03822df06084c25de.jpg" /></div>

<p><strong>дешевий</strong> (cheap) &mdash; <strong>дешево</strong> (cheaply)</p>

<p>Ця машина дуже <span style="text-decoration: underline;">дешева</span>. &mdash; This car is very <span style="text-decoration: underline;">cheap</span>.</p>

<p>Ця машина коштує дуже <span style="text-decoration: underline;">дешево</span>. &mdash; This car costs very <span style="text-decoration: underline;">cheaply</span>.</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/16_fd42c75e70c00128abf72b108eeff68d.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/16_fd42c75e70c00128abf72b108eeff68d.jpg" /></div>

<p>Adverbs of quality can have comparative and superlative degrees of comparison which have simple and hard forms. Similar to <a href="/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-degrees-of-comparison.html" rel="nofollow">adjectives</a> I recommend to use the hard form.</p>

<p><strong>Comparative degree</strong>:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p><strong>Simple form</strong> is created by adding suffixes <em><strong>-ше</strong></em> and <em><strong>-іше</strong></em>.</p>

<p>весело (cheerfully) &mdash; весел<span style="text-decoration: underline;">іше</span> (more cheerfully)</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/16_63f73589a2246b0668ef4596a23fb0a1.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/16_63f73589a2246b0668ef4596a23fb0a1.jpg" /></div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Hard form</strong> is created by adding words <strong>більш</strong> (more), <strong>менш</strong> (less) to the adverb.</p>

<p>дешево (cheaply) &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">більш</span> дешево (more cheaply), <span style="text-decoration: underline;">менш</span> дешево (less cheaply)</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><strong>Superlative degree</strong>:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p><strong>Simple form</strong> is created by adding prefix <em><strong>най-</strong></em> to comparative adverb.</p>

<p>веселіше (more cheerfully) &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">най</span>веселіше (most cheerfully)</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/16_5183570b9526b5d2d4d7de11b6e03121.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/16_5183570b9526b5d2d4d7de11b6e03121.jpg" /></div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>Hard form</strong> is created by adding words <strong>найбільш</strong> (more), <strong>найменш</strong> (less) to the adverb.</p>

<p>дешево (cheaply) &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">найбільш</span> дешево (most cheaply), <span style="text-decoration: underline;">найменш</span> дешево (least cheaply)</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Here are some useful adverbs:</span></p>

<p>добре &mdash; well</p>

<p>погано &mdash; badly</p>

<p>швидко &mdash; quickly</p>

<p>повільно &mdash; slowly</p>

<p>легко &mdash; easily</p>

<p>складно &mdash; difficult</p>

<p>гарно &mdash; beautifully</p>

<p>напам'ять &mdash; by heart</p>

<h2>Adverbs of quantity: how many? how much?</h2>

<p>By their meaning they are quite similar to English adverbs of degree.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">For example:</span></p>

<p>дуже &mdash; very</p>

<p>занадто &mdash; too</p>

<p>багато &mdash; many, much, a lot</p>

<p>забагато &mdash; too many, too much</p>

<p>трохи &mdash; few, little, a bit</p>

<p>мало &mdash; few, little</p>

<p>замало &mdash; very few, very little</p>

<p>You can use some of these adverbs to increase or decrease the meaning of other adverbs (as well as comparative ones):</p>

<p>Вона <strong>дуже</strong> швидко бігає. &mdash; She runs <strong>very</strong> fast.</p>

<p>Він знає про цей фільм <strong>трохи</strong> більше ніж ти. &mdash; He knows about this movie <strong>a bit</strong> more than you.</p>

<p>Чи не могли б ви говорити <strong>трохи</strong> тихіше? &mdash; Would you mind talking <strong>a bit</strong> quiter?</p>

<h1>Adverbs of time, place, intention and cause</h1>

<h2>Adverbs of time: when?</h2>

<p>These describe when an action takes place.</p>

<p>&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">Here are some useful adverbs:</span></p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>сьогодні &mdash; today</p>

<p>вчора &mdash; yesterday</p>

<p>завтра &mdash; tomorrow</p>

<p>зараз, тепер &mdash; now</p>

<p>скоро &mdash; soon</p>

<p>рано &mdash; early</p>

<p>пізно &mdash; late</p>

<p>зранку &mdash; in the morning</p>

<p>вдень &mdash; in the afternoon</p>

<p>ввечері &mdash; in the evening</p>

<p>вночі &mdash; at night</p>

<h2>Adverbs of place: where?</h2>

<p>These describe where an action takes place.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Here are some useful adverbs:</span></p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>тут &mdash; here</p>

<p>там &mdash; there</p>

<p>де &mdash; where</p>

<p>близько, поблизу &mdash; near</p>

<p>далеко &mdash; far</p>

<p>зверху &mdash; above</p>

<p>знизу &mdash; under</p>

<h2>Adverbs of intention and cause: why? what for?</h2>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Here are some useful adverbs:</span></p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>навмисне, навмисно &mdash; intentionally</p>

<p>наперекір &mdash; contrary</p>

<p>випадково, ненароком &mdash; accidentally</p>

<p>згарячу, зопалу &mdash; in warm blood</p>

<p>спросоння &mdash; half asleep</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Preposition: Location and Destination]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-02-01/the-preposition-location-and-destination.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-02-01/the-preposition-location-and-destination.html Thu, 09 Feb 2012 22:55:57 +0200 <p><img style="float: right; border: 2px solid #aaa; margin-right: 10px; margin-left: 10px; border-width: 2px;" src="/upload/article_images/12_371598d08c2623e435b56a9b7615bbcc.jpg" alt="" width="250" height="250" /></p>

<p>When telling the location of or destination to a particular object you may encounter some difficulties with what preposition to use or how to change the noun according to it.</p>

<p>In this article I will show you the most popular prepositions and their common usage.</p>

<p>Here are some main points of telling the location and destination:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>depending on the preposition and the question put to the sentence there can be 4 different <a href="/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">cases</a> involved in: Genitive, Accusative, Instrumental, Locative;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative case is never involved in telling the destination, it can only point on the location of an object.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><cut>Find out more about location and destination</cut></p>

<p>In the following examples I will use such abbreviations:</p>

<p>location &mdash; loc.</p>

<p>destination &mdash; dest.</p>

<p>Genitive &mdash; Gen.</p>

<p>Accusative &mdash; Acc.</p>

<p>Instrumental &mdash; Inst.</p>

<p>Locative &mdash; Loc.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>на (on): Locative, Accusative</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_02c3e3c941a6faa11f694a6d8d1b94f0.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_02c3e3c941a6faa11f694a6d8d1b94f0.png" /></div>

<p>стіл [stʲil] &mdash; a table (masculine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>на столі</strong>. &mdash; The cat is on the table.: loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>на столі</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting on the table.: loc., Loc.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> застрибнув кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> has the cat jumped?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт застрибнув <strong>на стіл</strong>. &mdash; The cat has jumped on the table.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> ти кладеш кота? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> are you putting a cat?: dest.</p>

<p>Я кладу кота <strong>на стіл</strong>. &mdash; I am putting a cat on the table.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p><strong>На картині</strong> зображені міфічні істоти. &mdash; There are mythical creatures depicted in the picture. (<strong>On the picture</strong> are depicted mythical creatures.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Минулого літа він був <strong>на морі</strong>. &mdash; Last summer he was at the seaside. (Last summer he was <strong>on the sea</strong>.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p><strong>На вулиці</strong> спекотно. &mdash; It is hot outside. (It is hot <strong>on the street</strong>.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p><strong>На</strong> автобусній <strong>зупинці</strong> нікого немає. &mdash; There is nobody at the bus stop. (<strong>On the bus stop</strong> there is nobody.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Він вішає картину <strong>на стіну</strong>. &mdash; He hangs a painting <strong>on the wall</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Я ходжу <strong>на роботу</strong> щодня. &mdash; I go to work everyday. (I go <strong>on work</strong> everyday.): dest., Acc.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>у, в (in): Locative, Accusative</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_247ccaf370a3f98a99b02e47e9c7e4e1.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_247ccaf370a3f98a99b02e47e9c7e4e1.png" /></div>

<p>коробка [kɔ'rɔbka] &mdash; a box (feminine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>у коробці</strong>. &mdash; The cat is in the box.: loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>у коробці</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting in the box.: loc., Loc.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> заліз кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> has the cat climbed?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт заліз <strong>у коробку</strong>. &mdash; The cat has climbed in the box.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> він кладе кота? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is he putting a cat?: dest.</p>

<p>Він кладе кота <strong>у коробку</strong>. &mdash; He is putting a cat in the box.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p>Діти вивчили багато нового <strong>у школі</strong>. &mdash; The children learned a lot of new things at school. (The children learned a lot of new <strong>in school</strong>.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Він вчиться <strong>в університеті</strong>. &mdash; He studies at the university. (He studies <strong>in the university</strong>.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Наша фірма вклала багато грошей <strong>у</strong> цю <strong>будівлю</strong>. &mdash; Our company has invested a lot of money <strong>in</strong> this <strong>building</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Його донька сидить <strong>вдома</strong>, бо захворіла. &mdash; His daughter is sitting at home because she is ill. (His daughter is sitting <strong>in home</strong> because she is ill.): loc., Loc.</p>

<p><strong>У</strong> цьому <strong>домі</strong> ніхто не живе. &mdash; Nobody lives <strong>in</strong> this <strong>house</strong>.: loc., Loc.</p>

<p>Він кидає камінці <strong>у річку</strong>. &mdash; He is throwing little stones <strong>in</strong> the <strong>river</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>Preposition <strong>у</strong> is used when the next word begins (or previous ends) with <span style="text-decoration: underline;">a consonant</span>, while <strong>в</strong> is used before (or after) <span style="text-decoration: underline;">a vowel</span>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>&ldquo;вдома&rdquo; means being or staying at somebody's own house and &ldquo;у домі&rdquo; means being or staying in some random house.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>з, зі, із (from, out): Genitive</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_2149ebdefbdcc3482f494d903b22b6ef.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_2149ebdefbdcc3482f494d903b22b6ef.png" /></div>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Звідки</strong> вистрибнув кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> has the cat jumped <strong>out (from)</strong>?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт вистрибнув <strong>з коробки</strong>. &mdash; The cat has jumped out (from) the box.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Ти дістаєш кота <strong>з коробки</strong>. &mdash; You are pulling a cat out of (from) the box.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p><strong>Звідки</strong> ти? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> are you <strong>from</strong>?: dest.</p>

<p>Я <strong>з Аргентини</strong>. &mdash; I am <strong>from Argentina</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Він приїхав <strong>з Німеччини</strong>. &mdash; He came <strong>from Germany</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>Prepositions <em>з, зі, із</em> have the same meaning. Preposition <strong>зі</strong> is often used when the next word begins (or previous ends) <span style="text-decoration: underline;">with two or more consonants</span>, while <strong>з</strong> is used when the next word begins (or previous ends) with <span style="text-decoration: underline;">a consonant</span> or <span style="text-decoration: underline;">a vowel</span>. <strong>із</strong> is often used between two consonants, but is still less popular unlike <strong>з</strong>, which is used the most.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>за (behind): Instrumental, Accusative</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_1b0688c76ea4c35e117c87103fcebe0d.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_1b0688c76ea4c35e117c87103fcebe0d.png" /></div>

<p>стіл [stʲil] &mdash; a table (masculine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>за столом</strong>. &mdash; The cat is behind (at) the table.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>за столом</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting behind (at) the table.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> стрибнув кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> has the cat jumped?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт стрибнув <strong>за стіл</strong>. &mdash; The cat jumped over the table.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Вона кладе кота <strong>за стіл</strong>. &mdash; She is putting a cat behind (at) the table.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p>Бабуся сидить <strong>за столом</strong>. &mdash; The granny is sitting <strong>at the table</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Вони стоять <strong>за будинком</strong>. &mdash; They are standing <strong>behind the building</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p><strong>За дверима</strong> нікого немає. &mdash; There is nobody <strong>at the door</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Гаманець впав <strong>за шафу</strong>. &mdash; The wallet fell <strong>over the wardrobe</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>перед (before, in front of): Instrumental</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_2ad72a0bf6bce007b6739a7298182abf.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_2ad72a0bf6bce007b6739a7298182abf.png" /></div>

<p>коробка [kɔ'rɔbka] &mdash; a box (feminine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>перед коробкою</strong>. &mdash; The cat is in front of the box.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>перед коробкою</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting in front of the box.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p><strong>Перед будинком</strong> зібрався натовп. &mdash; A crowd had gathered <strong>in front of the building</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>над (above): Instrumental</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_24f0279aea2b6ec1965bf9eed2203c5d.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_24f0279aea2b6ec1965bf9eed2203c5d.png" /></div>

<p>стіл [stʲil] &mdash; a table (masculine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>над столом</strong>. &mdash; The cat is above the table.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>над столом</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting above the table.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p><strong>Над</strong> нашими <strong>головами</strong> пролетів літак. &mdash; The plane flew <strong>above</strong> our <strong>heads</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>під (under): Instrumental, Accusative</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_73d3c9eb03355c0793c2e1834704ec41.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_73d3c9eb03355c0793c2e1834704ec41.png" /></div>

<p>стіл [stʲil] &mdash; a table (masculine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>під столом</strong>. &mdash; The cat is <strong>under the table</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>під столом</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting <strong>under the table</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> заліз кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> has the cat crawled?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт заліз <strong>під стіл</strong>. &mdash; The cat has crawled <strong>under the table</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p>Він спить <strong>під</strong> теплою <strong>ковдрою</strong>. &mdash; He is sleeping (sleeps) <strong>under</strong> the warm <strong>blanket</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Вона сховала свій щоденник <strong>під ліжком</strong>. &mdash; She has hidden (hid) her diary <strong>under the bed</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Її сестра кладе коробку <strong>під стіл</strong>. &mdash; Her sister puts the box <strong>under the table</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>між (between): Instrumental, Accusative</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_fe077a07869ce3bdda7d93fe5071dea1.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_fe077a07869ce3bdda7d93fe5071dea1.png" /></div>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>між столами</strong>. &mdash; The cat is <strong>between the tables</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>між столами</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting <strong>between the tables</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> заліз кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> has the cat crawled?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт заліз <strong>між столи</strong>. &mdash; The cat has crawled <strong>between the tables</strong>.: dest., Acc.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p><strong>Між нами</strong> немає таємниць. &mdash; There are no secrets <strong>between us</strong>.: loc., Inst.</p>

<p>Вони побігли <strong>між дерева</strong>. &mdash; They have run <strong>between the trees</strong>.: loc., Acc.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>біля (near, at): Genitive</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_0194ee1b5c72b81297df6c5b172ab48b.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_0194ee1b5c72b81297df6c5b172ab48b.png" /></div>

<p>стіл [stʲil] &mdash; a table (masculine)</p>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Де</strong> кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat?: loc.</p>

<p>Кіт <strong>біля стола</strong>. &mdash; The cat is <strong>near the table</strong>.: loc., Gen.</p>

<p>Кіт сидить <strong>біля стола</strong>. &mdash; The cat is sitting <strong>near the table</strong>.: loc., Gen.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p>Біля будинку зібрався натовп. &mdash; The crowd gathered at the building. (<strong>At the building</strong> gathered the crowd.): loc., Gen.</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>до (to): Genitive</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_7a7629330f58353480ad3fadbc482046.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_7a7629330f58353480ad3fadbc482046.png" /></div>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Куди</strong> біжить кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat running?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт біжить <strong>до миски</strong>. &mdash; The cat is running (runs) <strong>to the bowl</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p>Я йду <strong>додому</strong>. &mdash; I am going home. (I am going <strong>to home</strong>.): dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Він їде <strong>до магазину</strong> за продуктами. &mdash; He is going (by vehicle) <strong>to the store</strong> for groceries.: dest., Gen.</p>

<h2>Note</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>&ldquo;додому&rdquo; means literally "to home" (when talking about going home), is a set phrase and written together, if you write it separately &mdash; &ldquo;до дому&rdquo; &mdash; it will mean going to a random home, building rather than returning to your own home.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<h1>від (from): Genitive</h1>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/12_137e23b36871ab2f0955191ff7f87759.png" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/12_137e23b36871ab2f0955191ff7f87759.png" /></div>

<p>Cat-examples:</p>

<p><strong>Звідки</strong> біжить кіт? &mdash; <strong>Where</strong> is the cat running <strong>from</strong>?: dest.</p>

<p>Кіт біжить <strong>від миски</strong>. &mdash; The cat is running (runs) <strong>from the bowl</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Random examples:</p>

<p><strong>Від себе</strong> не втечеш. &mdash; You cannot run <strong>from yourself</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Ці листи <strong>від моєї подруги</strong>. &mdash; These letters are <strong>from my friend</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<p>Ми прочитали текст <strong>від початку і до кінця</strong>. &mdash; We have read the text <strong>from the beginning (and) to the end</strong>.: dest., Gen.</p>

<h2>Note</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>&ldquo;від і до&rdquo; (<em>lit.</em> &lsquo;from and to'), is a short version of a set phrase &ldquo;від початку і до кінця&rdquo; and is often used instead of its longer counterpart, especially in everyday speech.</p>

<p>Він пояснив нам як вирішити тест <strong>від і до</strong>. &mdash; He explained us how to solve the test <strong>from the begining to the end</strong>.</p>

</li>

</ul>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Adjective: Degrees of comparison]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-degrees-of-comparison.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-degrees-of-comparison.html Thu, 09 Feb 2012 21:03:49 +0200 <p>Ukrainian adjectives have two degrees of comparison: <strong>comparative</strong> and <strong>superlative</strong>. Every degree has as well two forms: simple and hard.</p>

<p>First of all I would like to note that for beginners or even more advanced Ukrainian speakers the "simple" form is actually more difficult to understand and learn than the "hard" form. So feel free to use the easiest form because they both are interchangeable, though we prefer to use "hard" form with more abstract or relative adjectives.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about degrees of comparison</cut></p>

<h1>Comparative degree</h1>

<h2>Simple form</h2>

<p>Simple form is created by adding suffixes <strong>-іш</strong>, <strong>-ш</strong> to the stem of the adjective:</p>

<p>добрий (good) &mdash; добр<strong>іш</strong>ий (better)</p>

<p>злий (angry) &mdash; злі<strong>ш</strong>ий (angrier)</p>

<p>молодий (young) &mdash; молод<strong>ш</strong>ий (younger)</p>

<p>старий (old) &mdash; стар<strong>ш</strong>ий, стар<strong>іш</strong>ий (older)</p>

<p>кислий (sour) &mdash; кисл<strong>іш</strong>ий (sourer)</p>

<p>розумний (smart) &mdash; розумн<strong>іш</strong>ий (smarter)</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/10_b06caaa26787057fa9b590ab07d6e077.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/10_b06caaa26787057fa9b590ab07d6e077.jpg" /></div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/10_7b60b7ba3098429bd7d78f1bf2ae353f.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/10_7b60b7ba3098429bd7d78f1bf2ae353f.jpg" /></div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>Sometimes creating the comparative degree the suffixes <strong>-к</strong>, <strong>-ок</strong>, <strong>-ек</strong> can drop out:</p>

<p>тон<span style="text-decoration: underline;">к</span>ий (thin) &mdash; тон<strong>ш</strong>ий (thinner)</p>

<p>глиб<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ок</span>ий (deep) &mdash; глиб<strong>ш</strong>ий (deeper)</p>

<p>дал<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ек</span>ий (far) &mdash; даль<strong>ш</strong>ий (farther)</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/10_324e98c16d192ac4c9fec0eef39749db.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/10_324e98c16d192ac4c9fec0eef39749db.jpg" /></div>

<h2>Hard form</h2>

<p>Hard form is created by adding words <em>більш</em> (more), <em>менш</em> (less) to the adjectives:</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>цікавий (interesting) &mdash; <strong>більш</strong> цікавий (more interesting), <strong>менш</strong> цікавий (less interesting)</p>

<p>розвинений (advanced) &mdash; <strong>більш</strong> розвинений (more advanced), <strong>менш</strong> розвинений (less advanced)</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>The <span style="text-decoration: underline;">adjective does not change</span> at all, all you need is to add a specific word to it.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Pay attention that unlike English where words "more" or "less" are used with adjectives with more than three syllables, Ukrainian "більш", "менш" are used with any adjectives no matter how many syllables they have.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>As you can see this form of making comparative adjective is much simplier than the previous one.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<h1>Superlative degree</h1>

<h2>Simple form</h2>

<p>It is created by adding prefix <strong>-най</strong> to the comparative adjective:</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>добріший (better) &mdash; найдобріший (the best)</p>

<p>зліший (angrier) &mdash; найзліший (the angriest)</p>

<p>розумніший (smarter) &mdash; найрозумніший (the smartest)</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/10_7e6518f48005d3433b7782490a74d968.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/10_7e6518f48005d3433b7782490a74d968.jpg" /></div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/10_cb2c1a9efefbb5c0460cf2dc575d34dd.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/10_cb2c1a9efefbb5c0460cf2dc575d34dd.jpg" /></div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>тонший (thinner) &mdash; найтонший (the thinnest)</p>

<p>глибший (deeper) &mdash; найглибший (the deepest)</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<div><img src="/upload/article_images/10_a461b4d9135eb911604f66aae1dc0f0a.jpg" alt="Image: /upload/article_images/10_a461b4d9135eb911604f66aae1dc0f0a.jpg" /></div>

<h2>Hard form</h2>

<p>It is created by adding words <em>найбільш</em> (the most), <em>найменш</em> (the less) to the adjectives:</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>захоплюючий (exciting) &mdash; <strong>найбільш</strong> захоплюючий (the most exciting), <strong>найменш</strong> захоплюючий (the least exciting)</p>

<p>розповсюджений (widespread, common) &mdash; <strong>найбільш</strong> розповсюджений (the most widespread, the most common), <strong>найменш</strong> розповсюджений (the least widespread, the least common)</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>It has simmilarities with hard form of comparative adjectives:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>The <span style="text-decoration: underline;">adjective does not change</span> at all as well.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>"найбільш", "найменш" are used with any adjectives no matter how many syllables they have.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>The hard form of making superlative adjectives is as simple as the hard form of comparative adjectives.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<h1>Exceptions</h1>

<p>Here are some adjectives that don't have suffixes <em>-іш</em>, <em>-ш</em> when creating comparative, superlative degree or change entirely (this concernes only simple form, there are no exceptions for the hard form of the comparative, superlative adjectives):</p>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>високий (high, tall) &mdash; вищий (higher, taller) &mdash; найвищий (the highest, the tallest)</p>

<p>низький (short) &mdash; нижчий (shorter) &mdash; найнижчий (the shortest)</p>

<p>товстий (fat) &mdash; товщий (or товстіший) (fatter) &mdash; найтовщий (найтовстіший) (the fattest)</p>

<p>близький (near) &mdash; ближчий (nearer) &mdash; найближчий (the nearest)</p>

<p>важкий (heavy) &mdash; важчий (heavier) &mdash; найважчий (the heaviest)</p>

<p>вузький (narrow) &mdash; вужчий (narrower) &mdash; найвужчий (the narrowest)</p>

<p>дорогий (expensive) &mdash; дорожчий (more expensive) &mdash; найдорожчий (the most expensive)</p>

<p>тяжкий (heavy,difficult) &mdash; тяжчий (heavier, more difficult) &mdash; найтяжчий (the heaviest, the most difficult)</p>

<p>хороший (good) &mdash; кращий (better) &mdash; найкращий (the best)</p>

<p>поганий (bad) &mdash; гірший (worse) &mdash; найгірший (the worst)</p>

<p>великий (big) &mdash; більший (bigger) &mdash; найбільший (the biggest)</p>

<p>малий (small) &mdash; менший (smaller) &mdash; найменший (the smallest)</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Adjective: Cases]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-cases.html Tue, 01 Feb 2011 15:39:22 +0200 <p>Depending on the consonant before the ending adjectives can be divided into two groups:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p><strong>hard group</strong>:</p>

<p>the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">hard consonant</span> before <strong>-ий</strong> ending: доб<span style="text-decoration: underline;">р</span><strong>ий</strong> (kind), черво<span style="text-decoration: underline;">н</span><strong>ий</strong> (red), чис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">т</span><strong>ий</strong> (clean), низь<span style="text-decoration: underline;">к</span><strong>ий</strong> (short);</p>

<p>all the possessive adjectives: мамин (mother's), батьків (father's);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>soft group</strong>:</p>

<p>the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">soft consonant</span> before <strong>-ій</strong>, си<span style="text-decoration: underline;">н</span><strong>ій</strong> (dark blue), ран<span style="text-decoration: underline;">н</span><strong>ій</strong> (early), колиш<span style="text-decoration: underline;">н</span><strong>ій</strong> (former, ex), справж <span style="text-decoration: underline;">н</span><strong>ій</strong> (true);</p>

<p>adjectives with <strong>-їй</strong> ending: безкра<strong>їй</strong> (immense, endless).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>and a special group of adjectives with <strong>-ций</strong> ending, which is a part of <strong>-лиций</strong> (&ldquo;лице&rdquo; means &ldquo;face&rdquo;): груглолиций (round-faced), блідолиций (pale-faced).</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p><cut>Read more about adectives</cut></p>

<h1>Hard group</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ий</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ої</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative (1)</td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ий</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к-<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ою</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ими</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative (2)</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>вис<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>високий [wɪ'sɔkɪj] &mdash; tall, high</p>

<h1>Soft group</h1>

<h2>-ій ending</h2>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ої</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">іх</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative (1)</td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span>/<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н-<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">іх</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ою</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">іми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative (2)</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н-<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>с<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">іх</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>синій ['sɪnʲij] &mdash; (dark) blue</p>

<h2>-їй ending</h2>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їй</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #008000;">й</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #008000;">й</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ої</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їх</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #008000;">й</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їй</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їм</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative (1)</td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>-<span style="color: #ff0000;">їй</span>/<span style="color: #008000;">й</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ї</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">їх</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їм</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #008000;">й</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ою</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative (2)</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>-<span style="color: #008000;">й</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">їм</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їй</span></td>

<td>безкр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">їх</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>безкраїй [bɛz'krajij] &mdash; immense, endless</p>

<h1>&ldquo;-лиций&rdquo; adjectives</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="3"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>masculine</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>neuter</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>feminine</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кругло<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span>ий</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ць</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ць</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ої</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ць</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative (1)</td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span>-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ий</span>/ь<span style="color: #ff0000;">ого</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span>-<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">им</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ць</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ою</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ими</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative (2)</td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2">кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span>-<span style="color: #008000;">ь</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ому</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">ім</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ій</span></td>

<td>кругло<span style="color: #008000;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ц</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">их</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>круглолиций [kruɦlɔ'lɪt͡sɪj] &mdash; round-faced</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<p><em>The stresses are underlined.</em></p>

<h1>Comments</h1>

<ol>

<li>

<p><strong>-ого</strong>, <strong>-ього</strong> and <strong>-их</strong>,<strong> -іх</strong> endings are used with animate (as well as inanimate) nouns, while <strong>-ий</strong>, <strong>-ій</strong> and <strong>-і</strong> are used <span style="text-decoration: underline;">only</span> with inanimate ones:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>Вона шукає висок<strong>ого</strong> чоловіка. &mdash; She is searching for a tall man.</p>

<p>Тут немає висок<strong>их</strong> чоловіків. &mdash; There are no tall men here.</p>

<p>but you <span style="text-decoration: underline;">cannot say</span>:</p>

<p>Тут немає високі чоловіки.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Мені потрібен висок<strong>ий</strong> стіл. &mdash; I need a high table.</p>

<p>Я не бачу тут висок<strong>і</strong> будівлі. &mdash; I do not see high buildings here.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">as well as</span>:</p>

<p>Я не бачу тут висок<strong>их</strong> будівель. &mdash; I do not see high buildings here.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><strong>-ому</strong>, <strong>-ьому</strong> endings are more popular (are used for both animate and inanimate nouns), while <strong>-ім</strong> are less (are used only for inanimate nouns):</p>

<p>На син<strong>ьому</strong> столі. На син<strong>ім</strong> столі. &mdash; On the blue table.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Adjectives with <strong>-ий</strong> ending are the most popular, while <strong>-ій</strong> adjectives are less popular and there are few <strong>-їй</strong> and <strong>-лиций</strong> adjectives;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>the stress in the adjectives does not change.</p>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Adjective: General information]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-general-information.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-31/the-adjective-general-information.html Mon, 31 Jan 2011 20:57:20 +0200 <p><strong>The adjective</strong> (прикметник [prɪk'mɛtnɪk]) is a part of speech which defines the subject and answers the question: &ldquo;який?&rdquo; &ldquo;яка?&rdquo; &ldquo;яке?&rdquo; (<strong>which?/what?/what kind?</strong>) and &ldquo;чий?&rdquo; &ldquo;чия?&rdquo; (<strong>whose?</strong>).</p>

<p>The adjectives can define:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>colour: білий (white), чорний (black), блакитний (blue);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>size: великий (big), малий (small, little), широкий (wide), вузький (narrow);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>age: молодий (young), старий (old);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>flavour: солодкий (sweet), кислий (sour);</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><cut>Read more about adjectives</cut></p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>odour: запашний, духмяний (fragrant);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>material: металевий (metal), дерев'яний (wooden), пластиковий (plastic);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>quality: твердий (hard), м'який (soft), гнучкий (flexible), рідкий (liquid);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>possession: сестрин (sister's), мамин (mom's);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>appearance: гарний (beautiful), стрункий (slim, thin);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>immanence: добрий (kind), злий (angry, evil), щирий (sincere);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>location: місцевий (local), сільський (rural), обласний (regional);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>space: далекий (far, distant), близький (near, close);</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>time: ранковий (morning), пізній (late);</p>

<p>etc.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>The adjective can be changed according to gender, number and case of the noun it defines:</p>

<p>солодк<strong>ий</strong> шоколад &mdash; sweet chocolate (singular, masculine gender, Nominative case),</p>

<p>солодк<strong>а</strong> цукерка &mdash; sweet candy (singular, feminine gender, Nominative case),</p>

<p>солодк<strong>е</strong> морозиво &mdash; sweet ice cream (singular, neuter gender, Nominative case),</p>

<p>солодк<strong>і</strong> яблука &mdash; sweet apples (plural, Nominative case).</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Noun: Fourth declension]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-fourth-declension.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-fourth-declension.html Mon, 31 Jan 2011 15:31:29 +0200 <p>The fourth declension includes <strong>neuter nouns</strong> with <strong>-а</strong>(<strong>-я</strong>) endings, which after declension achieve <strong>ен-</strong>, <strong>-ат-</strong>, <strong>-ят-</strong> suffixes.</p>

<p>Similar to the third declension it does not have groups (still the <a href="/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html" rel="nofollow">first and second declensions</a> have them).</p>

<p>Neuter nouns with <strong>-а(-я)</strong> endings that mostly mean little animals or names of undersized things get the <strong>-ат-</strong>,<strong>-ят-</strong> suffixes: курч<strong>а</strong> (a chicken) &mdash; курч<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ат</span>и, кошен<strong>я</strong> (a kitten) &mdash; кошен<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ят</span>и, ягн<strong>я</strong> (a lamb) &mdash; ягн<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ят</span>и, немовл<strong>я</strong> (a newborn baby) &mdash; немовл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ят</span>и etc.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about fourth declension</cut></p>

<h1>The nouns with -ат-, -ят- suffixes</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">курч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кошен<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>курч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span>, курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span>, кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

<td>(на) кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>курч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>курч<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>кошен<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>т</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>курча [kur't͡ʃɑ] &mdash; a chicken</p>

<p>кошеня [kɔʃɛ'nʲɑ] &mdash; a kitten</p>

<h1>The nouns with -ен- suffixes</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">ім'<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м'<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">ім<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">плем<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>, ім'<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span>, пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м'<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>ім<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>н</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>плем<span style="color: #008000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>н</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>ім<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>плем<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>ім'<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м'<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>ім<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>плем<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ем</span>, ім'<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

<td>пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ем</span>, пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м'<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

<td>ім<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>плем<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(в) <span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(і) пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(в) ім<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

<td>(у) плем<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>ім'<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м'<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>ім<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>плем<span style="color: #008000;">ен</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>ім'я [im'jɑ] &mdash; a name</p>

<p>плем'я ['plɛmjɑ] &mdash; a tribe</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<p><em>The stresses are underlined.</em></p>

<p><em>The&nbsp;</em>&empty;<em> sign means that there is no ending (zero ending).</em></p>

<h1>Comments</h1>

<ol>

<li>

<p>nouns with <strong>-ен-</strong> suffix:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>both forms can be used in the singular <strong>Genitive case</strong>:</p>

<p>ім'я &mdash; імені, ім'я,</p>

<p>плем'я &mdash; племені, плем'я,</p>

<p>вим'я &mdash; вимені, вим'я;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>both forms can be used in the singular Genitive case:</p>

<p>ім'я &mdash; іменем, ім'ям,</p>

<p>плем'я &mdash; племенем, плем'ям,</p>

<p>вим'я &mdash; вименем, вим'ям;</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>nouns with <strong>-ат-</strong> or <strong>-ят-</strong> suffix:</p>

<p>in the <strong>Accusative case</strong>:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>names of animals may have two forms:</p>

<p>телята (calves) &mdash; телят, телята;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>inanimated nouns mostly have the same Nominative and Accusative forms;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of people have the same Genitive and Accusative forms:</p>

<p>дівчата (girls) &mdash; дівчат,</p>

<p>немовлята (newborn babies) &mdash; немовлят.</p>

</li>

</ul>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Noun: Third declension]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-third-declension.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-third-declension.html Mon, 31 Jan 2011 11:02:39 +0200 <p>The third declension includes <strong>feminine nouns</strong> with <strong>zero endings</strong> and the word &ldquo;<strong>мати</strong>&rdquo; (a mother).</p>

<p>It does not have groups like the <a href="/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html" rel="nofollow">first and second declensions</a> and thus is easier to deal with. Many feminine nouns from this group mean something abstract, object's quality, condition, action or even some general concepts. These nouns often cannot have plural form.</p>

<p>Example: сміливість (courage), гордість (pride), любов (love), щастя (happiness), мудрість (a wisdom), радість (a joy) etc.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about third declension</cut></p>

<h1>Feminine nouns with zero ending</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>нь<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ей</span></td>

<td>ноч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

<td>ноч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>нь<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>нн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ями</span></td>

<td>ноч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(у) т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(у) ноч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(у) т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

<td>(у) ноч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>т<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>н<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>тінь [tʲinʲ] &mdash; a shadow</p>

<p>ніч [nʲit͡ʃ] &mdash; a night</p>

<h1>The noun &ldquo;мати&rdquo;</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 40%;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 40%;">матер<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>тер<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>матер<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>тер<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>матер<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>тір<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>матер<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>тір'<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>матер<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(у) м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>тер<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(у) матер<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>матер<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>мати ['mɑtɪ] &mdash; a mother</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<p><em>The stresses are underlined.</em></p>

<p><em>The&nbsp;</em>&empty;<em> sign means that there is no ending (zero ending).</em></p>

<h1>Comments</h1>

<ol>

<li>

<p>In the <strong>Istrumental case</strong> singular nouns have <strong>у(ю)</strong> ending and if:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>the word ends with one consonant (except <em>б, п, в, м, ф</em> and <em>р</em>) then this <span style="text-decoration: underline;">consonant will double</span>:</p>

<p>ті<span style="text-decoration: underline;">нь</span> (a shadow) &mdash; ті<span style="text-decoration: underline;">нн</span>ю,</p>

<p>ні<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ч</span> (a night) &mdash; ні<span style="text-decoration: underline;">чч</span>ю,</p>

<p>рі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ч</span> (a thing) &mdash; рі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">чч</span>ю,</p>

<p>мі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">дь</span> (copper) &mdash; мі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">дд</span>ю etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>the word ends with two consonants or <strong>б, п, в, м, ф</strong>, or <strong>р, щ</strong> then the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">consonant will not double</span>:</p>

<p>раді<span style="text-decoration: underline;">сть</span> (a joy) &mdash; раді<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ст</span>ю,</p>

<p>сміливі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">сть</span> (courage) &mdash; сміливі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ст</span>ю,</p>

<p>любо<span style="text-decoration: underline;">в</span> (love) &mdash; любо<span style="text-decoration: underline;">в</span>'ю,</p>

<p>маті<span style="text-decoration: underline;">р</span> (a mother) &mdash; маті<span style="text-decoration: underline;">р</span>'ю etc.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>The change of <strong>о</strong> with <strong>і, е</strong> vowels:</p>

<p>рад<strong>і</strong>сть (a joy) &mdash; рад<strong>о</strong>сті</p>

<p>смілив<strong>і</strong>сть (courage) &mdash; смілив<strong>о</strong>сті</p>

<p>с<strong>і</strong>ль (a salt) &mdash; с<strong>о</strong>лі</p>

<p>н<strong>і</strong>ч (a night) &mdash; н<strong>о</strong>чі</p>

<p>р<strong>і</strong>ч (a thing) &mdash; р<strong>е</strong>чі</p>

<p>п<strong>і</strong>ч (a stove) &mdash; п<strong>е</strong>чі</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>As you can see the word <strong>мати</strong> has <strong>-и</strong> ending unlike the other words of the group. Then why is it included to this group? The answer is simple. The word has similar endings in all the cases (except the Vocative and the plural Genitive cases) as other nouns of the group.</p>

<p>The only thing is that it also achives the <strong>-ер-</strong> and <strong>-ір-</strong> suffixes.</p>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Noun: Second declension]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-second-declension.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-second-declension.html Sat, 29 Jan 2011 18:20:01 +0200 <p>The second declension includes <strong>masculine nouns</strong> with <strong>zero</strong> and <strong>-о</strong> endings and <strong>neuter nouns</strong> with <strong>-о,-е,-я</strong> endings.</p>

<p>These nouns are divides in three groups: hard, soft and mixed. In <a href="/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html" rel="nofollow">The Noun: Declensions</a> article it was explained which nouns belong to each of these groups, so now it is time to learn how to change the nouns according to the cases and their groups.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about second declension</cut></p>

<p>The nouns of the second declension change depending on the group they belong to and the gender:</p>

<h1>Hard group</h1>

<h2>Masculine nouns</h2>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">чоловік<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">світ<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>чоловік<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

<td>світ<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>к-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>чоловік<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>світ<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>чоловік<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

<td>світ<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td>св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td>чоловік<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>світ<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>к-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ові</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>(на) св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) чоловік<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

<td>(на) світ<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>чолов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>св<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>чоловік<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>світ<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>чоловік [t͡ʃɔlɔ'wʲik] &mdash; a man; a husband</p>

<p>світ [swʲit] &mdash; a world</p>

<h2>Neuter nouns</h2>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кн<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кон<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кн<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>вікн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>м</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">ом</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

<td>дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

<td>(на) дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>рев<span style="color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>кн<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>дер<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>вікно [wʲik'nɔ] &mdash; a window</p>

<p>дерево ['dɛrɛwɔ] &mdash; a tree</p>

<h1>Soft group</h1>

<h2>Masculine nouns</h2>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>нь<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>й<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">дн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кра<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>дн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>дн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

<td>кра<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">ї</span>в</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>дн-<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ві</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>-<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;">єві</span></td>

<td>дн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

<td>кра<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>нь<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>й<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>дн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>кра<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>дн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">єм</span></td>

<td>дн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>ми</span></td>

<td>кра<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) дн-<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ві</span></td>

<td>(на) кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>(на) дн<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>х</span></td>

<td>(на) кра<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>нь<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>дн<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>кра<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>день [dɛnʲ] &mdash; a day</p>

<p>край [krɑj] &mdash; a land; a region</p>

<h2>Neuter nouns</h2>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">мор<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>мор<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>мор<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>м</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>мор<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">ем</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

<td>мор<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>ми</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ями</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) мор<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>х</span></td>

<td>(на) обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>мор<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td>обл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>чч<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>море ['mɔrɛ] &mdash; a sea</p>

<p>обличчя [ɔblɪt͡ʃ:ʲɑ] &mdash; a face</p>

<h1>Mixed group</h1>

<h2>Masculine nouns</h2>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">чит<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">нож<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">читач<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>нож<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>нож<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>нож-<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">у</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ві</span></td>

<td>читач-<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">у</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ві</span></td>

<td>нож<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ж/нож<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>нож<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>нож<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м</span></td>

<td>нож<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) нож<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) читач<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) нож<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

<td>(на) читач<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>н<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>чит<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>нож<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>читач<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>ніж [nʲiʒ] &mdash; a knife</p>

<p>читач [t͡sɪ'tɑt͡s] &mdash; a reader</p>

<h2>Neuter nouns</h2>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">ів</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span>, пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">ем</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>м</span></td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ма</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

<td>(на) пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>пр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>звищ<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td>пл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>прізвище ['prʲizwɪʃt͡ʃɛ] &mdash; a surname, a second name</p>

<p>плече [plɛ't͡sɛ] &mdash; a shoulder</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<p><em>The stresses are underlined.</em></p>

<p><em>The </em>&empty;<em> sign means that there is no ending (zero ending).</em></p>

<h1>Comments</h1>

<ol>

<li>

<p>In the <strong>Genitive case masculine nouns</strong> can have &ldquo;а(я)&rdquo; or &ldquo;у(ю)&rdquo; endings.</p>

<p><strong>а(я)</strong> ending have nouns which mean:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>names of individuals and creatures: чоловік (a man) &mdash; чоловіка, кінь (a horse) &mdash; коня, кріт (a mole) &mdash; крота, Петро (Petro) &mdash; Петра;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of specific countable objects: олівець (a pencil) &mdash; олівц<strong>я</strong>, зошит (a notebook) &mdash; зошит<strong>а</strong>, журнал (a magazine) &mdash; журнал<strong>а</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of settlements, regions (especially Ukrainian): Київ (Kyiv) &mdash; Києв<strong>а</strong>, Севастопіль (Sevastopil) &mdash; Севастопол<strong>я</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of measuring units: метр (a meter) &mdash; метр<strong>а</strong>, грам (a gram) &mdash; грам<strong>а</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>alien words which became terms: атом (an atom) атом<strong>а</strong>, електрон (an electron) електрон<strong>а</strong>, квадрат (a square) квадрат<strong>а</strong>, відмінок (a case) відмінк<strong>а</strong>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of vehicles: автобус (a bus) &mdash; автобус<strong>а</strong>, велосипед (a bicycle) &mdash; велосипед<strong>а</strong>, мотоцикл (a motorcycle) &mdash; мотоцикл<strong>а</strong>.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p><strong>у(ю)</strong> ending have nouns which mean:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>materials, liquids, chemicals: цукор (sugar) &mdash; цукр<strong>у</strong>, мед (honey) &mdash; мед<strong>у</strong>, оцет (vinegar) &mdash; оцт<strong>у</strong>, пісок (sand) &mdash; піск<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>natural phenomena: вітер (wind) &mdash; вітр<strong>у</strong>, туман (fog) &mdash; туман<strong>у</strong>, дощ (rain) &mdash; дощ<strong>у</strong>, сніг (snow) &mdash; сніг<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>formation: хор (a choir) &mdash; хор<strong>у</strong>, гурт (a band) &mdash; гурт<strong>у</strong>, натовп (a crowd) &mdash; натовп<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>surroundings or space: горизонт (horizon) &mdash; горизонт<strong>у</strong>, простір (space) &mdash; простор<strong>у</strong>, об'єм (volume) &mdash; об'єм<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of states and territories: Китай (China) &mdash; Кита<strong>ю</strong>, Сибір (Siberia) &mdash; Сибір<strong>у</strong>, Техас (Texas) &mdash; Техас<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>names of buildings, institutions, establishments, organizations: парламент (a parlament) &mdash; парламент<strong>у</strong>, вокзал (a railroad station) &mdash; вокзал<strong>у</strong>, театр (a theatre) &mdash; театр<strong>у</strong>, супермаркет (a supermarket) &mdash; супермаркет<strong>у</strong>, магазин (a shop) &mdash; магазин<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>feelings, mental and physical state: біль (pain) &mdash; бол<strong>ю</strong>, страх (fear) &mdash; страх<strong>у</strong>, жаль (pity) &mdash; жал<strong>ю</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>actions, processes: крик (scream) &mdash; крик<strong>у</strong>, сміх (laughter) &mdash; сміх<strong>у</strong>, спів (singing) &mdash; спів<strong>у</strong>, ріст (growth) &mdash; рост<strong>у</strong>;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>abstract concepts: розум (mind) &mdash; розум<strong>у</strong>, мир (peace) &mdash; мир<strong>у</strong>, характер (character, temper) &mdash; характер<strong>у</strong>, настрій (mood) &mdash; настро<strong>ю</strong>.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>In the singular <strong>Dative case</strong> nouns can have parallel endings, but <span style="text-decoration: underline;">animate</span> nouns tend to have <strong>-ові, -еві</strong> endings, while <span style="text-decoration: underline;">inanimate</span> ones <strong>-у, -ю</strong>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Changes of <strong>-і-</strong> and <strong>-о-</strong> vowels: р<strong>і</strong>к (a year) &mdash; р<strong>о</strong>ку, с<strong>і</strong>к (a juice) &mdash; с<strong>о</strong>ку, к<strong>і</strong>т (a &ldquo;he&rdquo;-cat) &mdash; к<strong>о</strong>та, б<strong>і</strong>ль (a pain) &mdash; б<strong>о</strong>лю, л<strong>і</strong>д (an ice) &mdash; л<strong>ьо</strong>ду.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>In the <strong>Locative case</strong> г, к, х consonants change into з, ц, с:</p>

<p>лу<strong>г</strong> (a meadow) &mdash; у лу<strong>з</strong>і,</p>

<p>кри<strong>к</strong> (a scream) &mdash; у кри<strong>ц</strong>і,</p>

<p>горо<strong>х</strong> (pea) &mdash; у горо<strong>с</strong>і.</p>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Noun: First declension]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-first-declension.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-first-declension.html Thu, 27 Jan 2011 10:11:50 +0200 <p>The first declension includes <strong>feminine</strong>, <strong>masculine</strong> and <strong>combined</strong> nouns with <strong>-а(-я)</strong> ending.</p>

<p>These nouns are divided into three groups: hard, soft and mixed. In <a href="/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html" rel="nofollow">The Noun: Declensions</a> article it was explained which nouns belong to each of these groups, so now it is time to learn how to change the nouns according to the cases and their groups.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about first declension</cut></p>

<p>The nouns of the first declension change depending on the group they belong to:</p>

<h1>Hard group</h1>

<div>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">рук<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">а</span></span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">голов<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">р<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>рук<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>голов<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>р<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>гол<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>в<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>руц<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>голов<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>рук<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>м</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>р<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>р<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>рук<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span></td>

<td>голов<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>ю</span></td>

<td>рук<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) руц<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">і</span></span></td>

<td>(на) голов<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span></span></td>

<td>(на) рук<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>х</span></td>

<td>(на) г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>&nbsp;р<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">о</span></td>

<td>р<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>к<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span>лов<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p>рука [ru'kɑ] &mdash; a hand</p>

<p>голова [ɦɔlɔ'wɑ] &mdash; a head</p>

<h1>Soft group</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">змі<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">я</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>змі<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>ш<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>нь<span class="vchar u2000" style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>й<span class="vchar u2000" style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>змі<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

<td>зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>змі<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ю</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ею</span></td>

<td>змі<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">є</span>ю</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ями</span></td>

<td>зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ями</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) змі<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

<td>(на) в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

<td>(на) зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>змі<span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">є</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span>шн<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>зм<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span><span style="color: #ff0000;">ї</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p>вишня ['wɪʃnʲɑ] &mdash; a cherry</p>

<p>змія [zmʲi'ja] &mdash; a snake</p>

<h1>Mixed group</h1>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">а</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span class="vchar u2000" style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">&empty;</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">у</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ею</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">ею</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">ами</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>(на) кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

<td>(на) в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">е</span></td>

<td>кр<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>ч<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

<td>в<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>ж<span style="color: #ff0000;">і</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

<p>круча ['krut͡ʃɑ] &mdash; a steep</p>

<p>вежа ['wɛʒɑ] &mdash; a tower</p>

<h2>Notes</h2>

<p><em>The stresses are underlined.</em></p>

<div><em>The&nbsp;</em>&empty;<em> sign means that there is no ending (zero ending).</em></div>

<h1>Comments</h1>

<ol>

<li>

<p>In the singular Dative and Locative cases <strong>г, к, х</strong> before <strong>-і</strong> ending change into <strong>з, ц, с</strong>:</p>

<p>ва<strong>г</strong>а (a weight) &mdash; ва<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>з</strong>і</span></p>

<p>но<strong>г</strong>а (a leg) &mdash; но<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>з</strong>і</span></p>

<p>ру<strong>к</strong>а (a hand) &mdash; ру<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>ц</strong>і</span></p>

<p>рі<strong>к</strong>а (a river) &mdash; рі<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>ц</strong>і</span></p>

<p>кур<strong>к</strong>а (a hen) &mdash; кур<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>ц</strong>і</span></p>

<p>гус<strong>к</strong>а (&ldquo;she&rdquo;-goose) &mdash; гус<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>ц</strong>і</span></p>

<p>свекру<strong>х</strong>а (husband's mother) &mdash; свекру<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>с</strong>і</span></p>

</li>

<li>

<p>feminine noun <em>&ldquo;дівчина&rdquo;</em> in plural has the same form as the fourth declension neuter noun <em>&ldquo;дівча&rdquo;</em> and declines like the nouns from fourth declension.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>nouns: <strong>людина</strong> (a human being), <strong>дитина</strong> (a child), <strong>курка</strong> (a hen), <strong>гуска</strong> (a &ldquo;she&rdquo;-goose) in plural form loose their suffixes <em>(люди, діти, кури, гуси)</em> and decline like this:&nbsp; </p>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td><strong>Case</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Singular</strong></td>

<td style="text-align: center;" colspan="2"><strong>Plural</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Nominative</td>

<td style="width: 20%;">л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ю</span>д<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">к<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td style="width: 20%;">г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Genitive</td>

<td>люд<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

<td>діт<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

<td>кур<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

<td>гус<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Dative</td>

<td>л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ю</span>д<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

<td>к<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">ам</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ям</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Accusative</td>

<td>люд<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

<td>діт<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

<td>кур-<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

<td>гус-<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span>/<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span>й</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Instrumental</td>

<td>людь<span style="color: #ff0000;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span></span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>ть<span style="color: #ff0000;">м<span style="text-decoration: underline;">и</span></span></td>

<td>к<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span>ми</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;"><span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span>ми</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Locative</td>

<td>(на) л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ю</span>д<span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

<td>(на) д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

<td>(на) к<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">ах</span></td>

<td>(на) г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">ях</span></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Vocative</td>

<td>л<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ю</span>д<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>д<span style="text-decoration: underline;">і</span>т<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>к<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>р<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

<td>г<span style="text-decoration: underline;">у</span>с<span style="color: #ff0000;">и</span></td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>There are some features when using a plural Genitive case:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>the last vowel changes from <strong>о</strong> to <strong>і</strong>:</p>

<p>ос<strong>о</strong>ба (a person: Nom., sing.) &mdash; ос<strong>о</strong>би (persons: Nom., pl.) &mdash; ос<strong>і</strong>б (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>сир<strong>о</strong>та (an orphan: Nom., sing.) &mdash; сир<strong>о</strong>ти (orphans: Nom., pl.) &mdash; сир<strong>і</strong>т (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>н<strong>о</strong>га (a leg: Nom., sing.) &mdash; н<strong>о</strong>ги (legs: Nom., pl.) &mdash; н<strong>і</strong>г (Gen., pl.)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>if there are two consonants before ending, then the vowels <strong>о</strong> or <strong>е</strong> appear between them:</p>

<p>ду<span style="text-decoration: underline;">мк</span>а (a thought: Nom., sing.) &mdash; ду<span style="text-decoration: underline;">мк</span>и (thoughts: Nom., pl.) &mdash; ду<span style="text-decoration: underline;">м<strong>о</strong>к</span> (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>ка<span style="text-decoration: underline;">зк</span>а (a fairy tail: Nom., sing.) &mdash; ка<span style="text-decoration: underline;">зк</span>и (fairy tails: Nom., pl.) &mdash; ка<span style="text-decoration: underline;">з<strong>о</strong>к</span> (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>жі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">нк</span>а (a woman: Nom., sing.) &mdash; жі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">нк</span>и (women: Nom., pl.) &mdash; жі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">н<strong>о</strong>к</span> (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>ви<span style="text-decoration: underline;">шн</span>я (a cherry: Nom., sing.) &mdash; ви<span style="text-decoration: underline;">шн</span>і (cherries: Nom., pl.) &mdash; ви<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ш<strong>е</strong>н</span>ь (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>зе<span style="text-decoration: underline;">мл</span>я (a ground, land: Nom., sing.) &mdash; зе<span style="text-decoration: underline;">мл</span>і (grounds, lands: Nom., pl.) &mdash; зе<span style="text-decoration: underline;">м<strong>е</strong>л</span>ь (Gen., pl.)</p>

<p>ве<span style="text-decoration: underline;">сн</span>а (a spring: Nom., sing.) &mdash; ве<span style="text-decoration: underline;">сн</span>и (springs: Nom., pl.) &mdash; ве<span style="text-decoration: underline;">с<strong>е</strong>н</span> (Gen., pl.)</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>In the plural Accusative case:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>nouns which name persons have the form of Genitive case:</p>

<p>бачу жінок, сестер&hellip; &mdash; I see women, sisters&hellip; (Accusative case, plural)</p>

<p>Квіти для жінок, сестер. &mdash; The flowers for women and sisters. (Genitive, plural)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>nouns which mean inanimate things have often the form of Nominal case:</p>

<p>збираю вишні, груші, ракети, книжки&hellip; &mdash; I am gathering cherries, pears, rockets, books&hellip; (Accusative case, plural)</p>

<p>вишні, груші, ракети, книжки&hellip; &mdash; cherries, pears, rockets, books&hellip; (Nominal case, plural)</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>some names of domestic animals, insects use both forms of Nominal and Genitive cases:</p>

<p>маю свиней/свині, овець/вівці, корів/корови, кіз/кози, гусей/гуси&hellip; &mdash; I have pigs, sheep, cows, goats, geese&hellip; (Accusative case, plural)</p>

<p>свині, вівці, корови, кози, гуси&hellip; &mdash; pigs, sheep, cows, goats, geese&hellip; (Nominal case, plural)</p>

<p>ферма для свиней, овець, корів, кіз, гусей&hellip; &mdash; a farm for pigs, sheep, cows, goats, geese&hellip; (Genitive, plural)</p>

</li>

</ul>

</li>

</ol>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Noun: Declensions]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-25/the-noun-declensions.html Wed, 26 Jan 2011 13:38:49 +0200 <p>From the <a href="/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">previous article</a> you have found out more about cases and their main points, so the next question you would probably ask is:</p>

<p><em>How to change the nouns according to the cases?</em></p>

<p>Well, for this purpose there are four declensions. Declensions are actually groups of nouns gathered due to their specific endings and genders. The first and the second declension also are divided into three different groups: hard, soft and mixed.</p>

<p>It looks like this:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>I declension</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>hard group</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>soft group</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>mixed group</p>

</li>

</ul>

</li>

<li>

<p>II declension</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>hard group</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>soft group</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>mixed group</p>

</li>

</ul>

</li>

<li>

<p>III declension</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>IV declension</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p><cut>Read more about declensions</cut></p>

<h1>I declension (Перша відміна)</h1>

<ul>

<li>

<p><em>feminine, masculine and combined nouns</em> with <strong>-а(-я)</strong> ending: судд<strong>я</strong> (a judge), стел<strong>я</strong> (a ceiling), жінк<strong>а</strong> (a woman), базік<strong>а</strong> (a chatterbox), калік<strong>а</strong> (a cripple) etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>depending on what consonant stands before the ending there are three groups of nouns:</p>

<div>

<table style="height: 165px; width: 100%;" border="1" width="568" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="width: 50px;"><strong>Group</strong></td>

<td><strong>The last consonant in the word</strong></td>

<td style="width: 400px;"><strong>Example</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>hard</td>

<td>a hard consonant, except <em>ж, ч, ш, щ, дж</em></td>

<td>голова (a head), рука (a hand), <br />дорога (a road), краса (a beauty)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>mixed</td>

<td>a hard consonant (<em>ж, ч, ш, щ, дж</em>)</td>

<td>вежа (a tower), миша (a mouse),<br />площа (a suqare, a palce), круча (a steep)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>soft</td>

<td>a soft consonant</td>

<td>мрія (a dream), земля (a ground),<br />свииня (a pig), пісня (a song)</td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

</div>

</li>

</ul>

<p>Read more about the first declension <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-first-declension.html" rel="nofollow">here</a>.</p>

<h1>II declension (Друга відміна)</h1>

<ul>

<li>

<p><em>masculine nouns</em> with <strong>zero</strong> and <strong>-о</strong> endings: кінь (a horse), сон (a dream), рот (a mouth), батьк<strong>о</strong> (a father) etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><em>neuter nouns</em> with <strong>-о,-е,-я</strong> endings: слов<strong>о</strong> (a word), вікн<strong>о</strong> (a window), гор<strong>е</strong> (a grief), серц<strong>е</strong> (a heart), знанн<strong>я</strong> (a knowledge), обличч<strong>я</strong> (a face) etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>depending on what consonant stands before the ending there are three groups of nouns:</p>

<div>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="width: 50px;"><strong>Group</strong></td>

<td><strong>The last consonant in the word</strong></td>

<td style="width: 400px;"><strong>&nbsp;Example</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;hard</td>

<td>&nbsp;a hard consonant, except <em>ж,ч, ш, щ, дж</em></td>

<td>

<p>зу<span style="color: #3366ff;">б</span> (a tooth), зоши<span style="color: #3366ff;">т</span> (a notebook), ді<span style="color: #3366ff;">д</span> (a grandfather), <br />се<span style="color: #3366ff;">л</span>о (a vilage), кри<span style="color: #3366ff;">л</span>о (a wing)</p>

</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>&nbsp;mixed</td>

<td>&nbsp;a hard consonant (ж, ч, ш, щ, дж)</td>

<td>

<p>ні<span style="color: #3366ff;">ж</span> (a knife), чита<span style="color: #3366ff;">ч</span> (a reader), <br />пле<span style="color: #3366ff;">ч</span>е (a shoulder), прізви<span style="color: #3366ff;">щ</span>е (a surname, a second name)</p>

</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td rowspan="3">&nbsp;soft</td>

<td>&nbsp;a soft consonant (<span style="text-decoration: underline;">masculine nouns</span>)</td>

<td>уче<span style="color: #3366ff;">н</span>ь (a student), де<span style="color: #3366ff;">н</span>ь (a day), бі<span style="color: #3366ff;">л</span>ь (a pain), <br />геро<span style="color: #3366ff;">й</span> (a hero), кра<span style="color: #3366ff;">й</span> (a land, a region)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>a consonant, except <em>ж,ч, ш, щ, дж</em> before <span style="color: #ff0000;">-е </span>ending (<span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter nouns</span>)</td>

<td>сон<span style="color: #3366ff;">ц</span>е (a sun), мо<span style="color: #3366ff;">р</span>е (a sea), сер<span style="color: #3366ff;">ц</span>е (a heart)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>a soft consonant before <span style="color: #ff0000;">-я</span> ending (<span style="text-decoration: underline;">neuter nouns</span>)</td>

<td>умін<span style="color: #3366ff;">н</span>я (a skill), знан<span style="color: #3366ff;">н</span>я (a knowledge), <br />полу<span style="color: #3366ff;">м</span>'я (a flame), пі<span style="color: #3366ff;">р</span>'я (a feather)</td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

&nbsp;</div>

</li>

</ul>

<ul>

<li>

<p>nouns with <strong>-р</strong> suffixes:</p>

<table style="width: 100%;" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="5">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="width: 50px;"><strong>Group</strong></td>

<td><strong>Rule</strong></td>

<td style="width: 400px;"><strong>Example</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>hard</td>

<td>Nouns with <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ар</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ер</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-єр</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ир</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ір</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-їр</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ор</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ур</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-юр</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-яр</span> suffixes; the stress does not change after declension</td>

<td>

<p>жар (a fever), фужер (a wine glass), кар'єр (a pit),<br />жир (a fat), звір (an animal), Каїр (Cairo), інспектор (inspector),<br />абажур (abat-jour), бардюр (border stone), капіляр (capilar)</p>

</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>mixed</td>

<td>nouns with <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ар</span>, <span style="color: #ff0000;">-ир</span> suffixes; the stress switches to an ending in plural form</td>

<td>лікар (a doctor), воротар (a goalkeeper), <br />секретар (a secretary), поводир (a sighted person; a guide-dog)</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>soft</td>

<td>names of people by their profession or activity with stressed <span style="color: #ff0000;">-яр</span> suffix</td>

<td>маляр (a painter), школяр (a schoolboy), <br />каменяр (bricklayer), газетяр (a news-agent)</td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<div>&nbsp;</div>

</li>

</ul>

<p>Read more about the second declension <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-second-declension.html" rel="nofollow">here</a>.</p>

<h1>III declension (Третя відміна)</h1>

<ul>

<li>

<p><em>feminine nouns</em> with <strong>zero ending</strong>: річ (a thing), тінь (a shadow), сіль (a salt), любов (a love) etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>feminine noun <strong>мати</strong> (a mother).</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>Read more about the third declension <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-third-declension.html" rel="nofollow">here</a>.</p>

<h1>IV declension (Четверта відміна)</h1>

<ul>

<li>

<p><em>neuter nouns</em> with <strong>-а</strong>(<strong>-я</strong>) endings, which after declension achieve <strong>ен-</strong>, <strong>-ат-</strong>, <strong>-ят-</strong> suffixes: кошеня (a kitten), ягня (a lamb), плем'я (a tribe), ім'я (a name) etc.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>Example:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p><em>-ат-, -ят- suffixes</em></p>

<p>тел<strong>я</strong> &mdash; тел<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ят</span>и</p>

<p>ягн<strong>я</strong> &mdash; ягн<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ят</span>и</p>

<p>порос<strong>я</strong> &mdash; порос<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ят</span>и</p>

<p>курч<strong>а</strong> &mdash; курч<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ат</span>и</p>

<p>Such neuter nouns with <em>-а(-я)</em> endings mostly mean little animals or names of undersized things.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><em>-ен suffix</em></p>

<p>ім'<strong>я</strong> (a name) &mdash; ім<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ен</span>і</p>

<p>плем'<strong>я</strong> (a tribe) &mdash; плем<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ен</span>і</p>

<p>сім'<strong>я</strong> (seed) &mdash; сім<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ен</span>і (there is also a word &ldquo;сім'я&rdquo; which means &ldquo;a family&rdquo;; they may be written the same way, but they have different stresses: &ldquo;сім'<strong>я</strong>&rdquo; (a family) and &ldquo;с<strong>і</strong>м'я&rdquo; (seed))</p>

<p>вим'<strong>я</strong> (udder) &mdash; вим<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ен</span>і</p>

<p>тім'<strong>я</strong> (a krone) &mdash; тім<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ен</span>і</p>

<p>These are all neuter nouns with &ldquo;-ен&rdquo; suffix. As you can see their special feature is an <span style="text-decoration: underline;">apostrophe before &ldquo;-я&rdquo;</span> ending.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p>Read more about the fourth declension <a href="/article/2011-01-26/the-noun-fourth-declension.html" rel="nofollow">here</a>.</p>

]]>
<![CDATA[The Noun: Cases]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html Tue, 25 Jan 2011 09:59:07 +0200 <p>In the previous article it was mentioned, that the noun in Ukrainian language has seven cases. Here I would like to expand the topic, so that you can understand the purpose of cases and their meaning.</p>

<p><em>Why do we need cases?</em></p>

<p>We need them to show how the noun and other words in the sentence interact with each other. It is basically a grammatical category.</p>

<p><em>How to understand where to use a certain case?</em></p>

<p>You must put a certain question to a noun in the sentence. For example, in English you can put three kinds of questions to a noun depending on its role in the sentence.</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p><em><strong>The boy</strong> is playing with a kitten.</em> (who? what?)</p>

<p>The word &ldquo;boy&rdquo; plays the role of a <strong>subject</strong>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><em>The boy hugged <strong>him</strong>.</em> (who?/whom?)</p>

<p>The word &ldquo;him&rdquo; plays the role of a <strong>direct object</strong>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p><em><strong>His</strong> kitten.</em></p>

<p>The word &ldquo;his&rdquo; plays the role of a <strong>possessor</strong>. (whose?)</p>

</li>

</ul>

<p>But in Ukrainian language you can put 6 types of questions.</p>

<p><cut>Read more about cases</cut></p>

<h1>Types of cases</h1>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Nominative</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Genitive</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Dative</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Accusative</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Instrumental</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Locative</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Vocative</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p>Every case in Ukrainian language is named after a specific word which helps to identify the question needed to be put down to a noun, therefore children at school are taught to memorize the questions according to the names of the cases. I think that it would be a useful thing for you to put on notice this way.</p>

<h1>Nominative case (Називний відмінок): хто? що?</h1>

<p>The nominative case is the easiest one as it answers direct questions: <em>who?</em> and <em>what?</em></p>

<p>The word &ldquo;називний&rdquo; is derived from Ukrainian &ldquo;назва&rdquo; (a name), so basically it is a dictionary form of a noun,</p>

<p>which <strong>names</strong> the object in the sentence:</p>

<p>His name is <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Oleh</span>. &mdash; Його звати <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Oleг</span>.</p>

<p>If a noun is <strong>a subject</strong> in the sentence, it has to be nominative case:</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The girl</span> is playing the piano. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Дівчинка</span> грає на піаніно.</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The book</span> lies on the table. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Книжка</span> лежить на столі.</p>

<p>If a noun is <strong>a part of a predicate</strong> (stays after a dash, which replaces &ldquo;to be&rdquo;):</p>

<p>He's brother <span style="text-decoration: underline;">is a doctor</span>. &mdash; Його брат <span style="text-decoration: underline;">&mdash; лікар</span>.</p>

<p>I <span style="text-decoration: underline;">am a (male) student</span>. &mdash; Я <span style="text-decoration: underline;">&mdash; студент</span>.</p>

<h1>Genitive case (Родовий відмінок): кого? чого?</h1>

<p>The genitive case shows that something or somebody is possessing or not possessing to somebody or something else.</p>

<p>The word &ldquo;родовий&rdquo; is derived from Ukrainian &ldquo;рід&rdquo; (a gender, a generation) and the question you can put is: <em>whose gender?</em>, so</p>

<p>it's basical purpose is to point out the <strong>possession</strong>, belonging, membership of the object:</p>

<p><span style="text-decoration: underline;">The girl's</span> piano. &mdash; Піаніно <span style="text-decoration: underline;">дівчинки</span>.</p>

<p>The back <span style="text-decoration: underline;">of the chair</span>. &mdash; Спинка <span style="text-decoration: underline;">крісла</span>.</p>

<p>He is a school principal (a principal <span style="text-decoration: underline;">of school</span>). &mdash; Він директор <span style="text-decoration: underline;">школи</span>.</p>

<p>In some <strong>negative</strong> sentences:</p>

<p>I do not have a credit <span style="text-decoration: underline;">card</span>. &mdash; У мене немає кредитної <span style="text-decoration: underline;">картки</span>.</p>

<p>James cannot send the <span style="text-decoration: underline;">letter</span>. &mdash; Джеймс не може відіслати <span style="text-decoration: underline;">листа</span>.</p>

<h1>Dative case (Давальний відмінок): кому? чому?</h1>

<p>The word &ldquo;давальний&rdquo; is derived from Ukrainian &ldquo;давати&rdquo; (to give) and the question you can put is: <em>to give to whom?</em></p>

<p>He gave a candy <span style="text-decoration: underline;">to a boy</span>. &mdash; Він дав цукерку <span style="text-decoration: underline;">хлопчику</span>.</p>

<p>or to show something to somebody, or to tell somebody something, or to explain, to present etc.:</p>

<p>Please, explain (to) <span style="text-decoration: underline;">sister</span> this rule. &mdash; Будь ласка, поясни <span style="text-decoration: underline;">сестрі</span> це правило.</p>

<p>He did not tell (to) his <span style="text-decoration: underline;">friend</span> that secret. &mdash; Він не розказав своєму <span style="text-decoration: underline;">другові</span> той секрет.</p>

<h1>Accusative case (Знахідний відмінок): кого? що?</h1>

<p>The word &ldquo;знахідний&rdquo; is derived from Ukrainian &ldquo;знаходити&rdquo; (to find) and the question you can put is: <em>to search for whom? to search for what?</em>,</p>

<p>in this case it is a direct object of a verb (action):</p>

<p>He is searching <span style="text-decoration: underline;">for mom</span>. &mdash; Він шукає <span style="text-decoration: underline;">маму</span>.</p>

<p>She is searching <span style="text-decoration: underline;">for a book</span>. &mdash; Вона шукає <span style="text-decoration: underline;">книжку</span>.</p>

<p>The student (pupil) has made his <span style="text-decoration: underline;">hometask</span>. &mdash; Учень зробив своє домашнє <span style="text-decoration: underline;">завдання</span>.</p>

<h1>Instrumental case (Орудний відмінок): ким? чим?</h1>

<p>This case is used when you want to express that someone or something is used by or works with smth or smb else.</p>

<p>The word &ldquo;орудний&rdquo; is derived from Ukrainian &ldquo;орудувати&rdquo; (to operate with, to handle with) and the question you can put is: <em>who to handle with? what to handle with?</em></p>

<p>He paints <span style="text-decoration: underline;">with a brush</span>. &mdash; Він малює <span style="text-decoration: underline;">пензликом</span>.</p>

<p>with the preposition <strong>з(зі)</strong> (with):</p>

<p>Mother went to the theater with <span style="text-decoration: underline;">sister</span>. &mdash; Мати пішла в театр з <span style="text-decoration: underline;">сестрою</span>.</p>

<p>Travelling by transport or going on foot, walking along the street, city or other long distances:</p>

<p>I walk along this <span style="text-decoration: underline;">street</span> every day. &mdash; Я гуляю цією <span style="text-decoration: underline;">вулицею</span> щодня.</p>

<p>He went to France <span style="text-decoration: underline;">by car</span>. &mdash; Він поїхав до Франції <span style="text-decoration: underline;">машиною</span>.</p>

<p>When somebody is interested, engaged or involved in something (somebody):</p>

<p>His girlfriend is interested in <span style="text-decoration: underline;">history</span>. &mdash; Його подруга цікавиться <span style="text-decoration: underline;">історією</span>.</p>

<p>She is studying (is engaged in) classical <span style="text-decoration: underline;">music</span>. &mdash; Вона займається класичною <span style="text-decoration: underline;">музикою</span>.</p>

<h1>Locative case (Місцевий відмінок): на кому? на чому?</h1>

<p>This case indicates the location. This case is used <strong>only with a preposition</strong>.</p>

<p>The word &ldquo;місцевий&rdquo; is derived from Ukrainian &ldquo;місце&rdquo; (a place) and the question you can put is: <em>on what? on whom?</em> (but only the location, not the destination!)</p>

<p>The cat is sitting <span style="text-decoration: underline;">in the armchair</span>. &mdash; <span style="text-decoration: underline;">У кріслі</span> сидить кіт. (location, Locative case)</p>

<p><em>But:</em></p>

<p>The cat jumped in (into) the box. &mdash; Кіт стрибнув <span style="text-decoration: underline;">у коробку</span>. (destination, Accusative case)</p>

<p>(For more explanation on the location vs. destination topic look <a href="/article/2011-02-01/the-preposition-location-and-destination.html">here</a>)</p>

<p>When telling time (with a prepositon <strong>о</strong> (at)):</p>

<p>He came <span style="text-decoration: underline;">at</span> nine <span style="text-decoration: underline;">o'clock</span>. &mdash; Він прийшов <span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> дев'ятій <span style="text-decoration: underline;">годині</span>.</p>

<h1>Vocative case (Кличний відмінок)</h1>

<p>The vocative case doesn't have any questions. It is used only in the direct speech when somebody is addressing somebody else.</p>

<p>&ldquo;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">Mother</span>, put it please on the shelf.&rdquo; &mdash; &ldquo;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">Мамо</span>, поклади це, будь ласка, на полицю.&rdquo;</p>

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<![CDATA[The Noun: Gender]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-22/the-noun-gender.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-22/the-noun-gender.html Sat, 22 Jan 2011 06:37:07 +0200 <p><strong>The noun</strong> (іменник [i'mɛn:ɪk]) &mdash; is the main part of speech and it is the basis of Ukrainian grammar. Ukrainian nouns have three genders, they can be singular and plural and what is more important they have seven <a href="http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html" rel="nofollow">cases</a>. Unlike English they do not have articles.</p>

<p>Depending on the noun's gender, number or case the other parts of speech (i.e. adjectives, pronouns, prepositions, numerals and verbs) will change.</p>

<p>For example:</p>

<p><em>Цей чоловік кладе книжку на стіл. &mdash; This man is putting (puts) a book on the table.</em></p>

<p>What we have here is the main noun &ldquo;чоловік&rdquo; (a predicate) which is masculine, singular and in nominal case (answers the question: &ldquo;who?&rdquo;). According to this we have to change the pronoun and the verb.</p>

<p><em>Let's talk about the genders</em></p>

<p>There are three of them:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Masculine <em>(чоловічий рід)</em>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Feminine <em>(жіночий рід)</em>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Neuter <em>(середній рід)</em>.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p><cut>Read more about genders</cut></p>

<h2>Masculine</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>nouns that are obviously &ldquo;male&rdquo;: чоловік &mdash; a man, хлопець &mdash; a boy, батько &mdash; a father, брат &mdash; a brother, друг &mdash; a (boy)friend, містер &mdash; Mister, бик &mdash; a bull, півень &mdash; a rooster etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>mostly all animals which don't have a specific gender distinction in their names: поні &mdash; pony, шимпанзе &mdash; chimpanzee, какаду &mdash; cockatoo, кенгуру &mdash; kangaroo etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>mostly have no endings: дуб &mdash; an oak, лоб &mdash; a forehead, зошит &mdash; a notebook, клас &mdash; a class, біль &mdash; a pain, сміх &mdash; a laughter etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>more rarely have <strong>-а</strong> or <strong>-о</strong> endings: Микол<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span> &mdash; Mykola (Michael), дядьк<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> &mdash; an uncle, тат<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> &mdash; dad.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<h2>Feminine</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>nouns that are obviously &ldquo;female&rdquo;: жінка &mdash; a woman, дівчина &mdash; a girl, мати &mdash; a mother, сестра &mdash; a sister, подруга &mdash; a (girl)friend, місіс &mdash; Missis, корова &mdash; a cow, курка &mdash; a hen etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>mostly have <strong>-а</strong> or <strong>-я</strong> endings: голов<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span> &mdash; a head, рук<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span> &mdash; a hand, шаф<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span> &mdash; a wardrobe, стін<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span> &mdash; a wall, земл<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; an earth, мрі<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; a dream etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>more rarely have no endings: тінь &mdash; a shadow, ніч &mdash; a night, радість &mdash; a joy.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<h2>Neuter</h2>

<ul>

<li>

<p>nouns that indicate animal babies and have <strong>-a</strong> or <strong>-я</strong> endings: курч<span style="text-decoration: underline;">а</span> &mdash; a chicken, ягн<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; a lamb, тел<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; a calf, порос<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; a piglet, цуцен<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; a puppy, кошен<span style="text-decoration: underline;">я</span> &mdash; a kitten etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>mostly have <strong>-о</strong> or <strong>-е</strong> endings: вікн<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> &mdash; a window, дерев<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> &mdash; a tree, сел<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> &mdash; a village, дзеркал<span style="text-decoration: underline;">о</span> &mdash; a mirror, плеч<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span> &mdash; a shoulder, мор<span style="text-decoration: underline;">е</span> &mdash; a sea etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>may also have <strong>-я</strong> endings: знання &mdash; a knowledge, обличчя &mdash; a face, плем'я &mdash; a tribe, ім'я &mdash; a name.</p>

</li>

</ul>

<h2>Combined</h2>

<p>There is also a <strong>combined</strong> type of gender which works both for masculine and feminine, masculine and neuter, feminine and neuter or even three of them.</p>

<p>Such are:</p>

<ul>

<li>

<p>nouns that mainly have emotion value, name some creature or a specific person and point at their inherency: бідолаха &mdash; a poor thing, волоцюга &mdash; a tramp, заїка &mdash; a shutterer, ненажера &mdash; a heavy eater, слуга &mdash; a servant, сирота &mdash; an orphan, листоноша &mdash; a postman etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>foreign surnames, Ukrainian surnames with <strong>-ко</strong> or <strong>-чук</strong> endings: Шевчен<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ко</span>, Петрен<span style="text-decoration: underline;">ко</span>, Дем<span style="text-decoration: underline;">чук</span>, Коваль<span style="text-decoration: underline;">чук</span> etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>some alien words, such as: директор &mdash; a principal, director, економіст &mdash; an economist, менеджер &mdash; a manager, декан &mdash; a warden, кандидат &mdash; a candidate, доцент &mdash; a docent, хірург &mdash; a surgeon, стоматолог &mdash; a dentist etc.;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>nouns that have <strong>-о</strong> ending and mean bad qualities of a person: ледащо &mdash; a lazybone, базікало &mdash; a chatterbox etc.</p>

</li>

</ul>

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<![CDATA[Introduction to Ukrainian language]]> http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-20/introduction-to-ukrainian-language.html http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-20/introduction-to-ukrainian-language.html Thu, 20 Jan 2011 07:11:07 +0200 <p>The first thing one should start from, when learning a new language, is the <strong>alphabet</strong>.</p>

<p>Knowing the letters and sounds you will encounter during your long journey sure is useful and helps a lot with learning new words.</p>

<p>Once you have mastered the alphabet consider yourself officially in!</p>

<p>To be serious I find it really hard for English-speaking (or people whose native language is based on Latin alphabet) people to actually understand and &ldquo;see&rdquo; <strong>Cyrillic letters</strong>. Very often they confuse letters like &ldquo;b&rdquo; and &ldquo;ь&rdquo; or &ldquo;R&rdquo; and &ldquo;Я&rdquo; or &ldquo;n&rdquo; and &ldquo;п&rdquo; etc., which leads to some sort of mutant words. Can't say I can blame them, but if you want to study well and understand what you're studying you shouldn't mix the letters thus preventing the mess in your head and other people's heads.</p>

<p><cut>Read more</cut></p>

<p>Coming to the point, <em>let's look through the actual alphabet</em>:</p>

<table style="height: 733px;" width="541">

<tbody>

<tr>

<td style="width: 80px;"><strong>Upright</strong></td>

<td style="width: 80px;"><strong>Italic</strong></td>

<td style="width: 130px;"><strong>Pronunciation</strong></td>

<td><strong>Tips</strong></td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Аа</td>

<td><em>Аа</em></td>

<td>/ɑ/</td>

<td>like in "bus"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Бб</td>

<td><em>Бб</em></td>

<td>/b/</td>

<td>like in "best"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Вв</td>

<td><em>Вв</em></td>

<td>/w/a</td>

<td>like in "vest"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Гг</td>

<td><em>Гг</em></td>

<td>/ɦ/</td>

<td>&nbsp;</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Ґґ</td>

<td><em>Ґґ</em></td>

<td>/g/</td>

<td>like in "ground"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Дд</td>

<td><em>Дд</em></td>

<td>/d/, /d<a class="mw-redirect" title="ʲ" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CA%B2">ʲ</a>/</td>

<td>like in "deck"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Ее</td>

<td><em>Ее</em></td>

<td>/ɛ/</td>

<td>like in "end"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Єє</td>

<td><em>Єє</em></td>

<td>/jɛ/ or /ʲɛ/</td>

<td>like in "yellow"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Жж</td>

<td><em>Жж</em></td>

<td>/ʒ/</td>

<td>like in "pleasure"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Зз</td>

<td><em>Зз</em></td>

<td>/z/, /zʲ/</td>

<td>like in "zap"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Ии</td>

<td><em>Ии</em></td>

<td>/&iota;/</td>

<td>like in "trip"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Іі</td>

<td><em>Іі</em></td>

<td>/i/, /ʲi/</td>

<td>like in "bee"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Її</td>

<td><em>Її</em></td>

<td>/ji/</td>

<td>like in "yeast"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Йй</td>

<td><em>Йй</em></td>

<td>/j/</td>

<td>like "j" sound in "play"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Кк</td>

<td><em>Кк</em></td>

<td>/k/</td>

<td>like in "crowd"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Лл</td>

<td><em>Лл</em></td>

<td>/l/, /lʲ/</td>

<td>like in "loud"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Мм</td>

<td><em>Мм</em></td>

<td>/m/</td>

<td>like in "mother"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Нн</td>

<td><em>Нн</em></td>

<td>/n/, /nʲ/</td>

<td>like in "nest"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Оо</td>

<td><em>Оо</em></td>

<td>/ɔ/</td>

<td>like in "folk"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Пп</td>

<td><em>Пп</em></td>

<td>/p/</td>

<td>like in "pride"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Рр</td>

<td><em>Рр</em></td>

<td>/r/, /rʲ/</td>

<td>like in "rest" but harder</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Сс</td>

<td><em>Сс</em></td>

<td>/s/, /sʲ/</td>

<td>like in "steak"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Тт</td>

<td><em>Тт</em></td>

<td>/t/, /tʲ/</td>

<td>like in "test" but not so soft</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Уу</td>

<td><em>Уу</em></td>

<td>/u/</td>

<td>like in "bull"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Фф</td>

<td><em>Фф</em></td>

<td>/f/</td>

<td>like in "fun"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Хх</td>

<td><em>Хх</em></td>

<td>/x/</td>

<td>like in "heart"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Цц</td>

<td><em>Цц</em></td>

<td>/͡ts/, /͡tsʲ/</td>

<td>like "ts" in "tsunami"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Чч</td>

<td><em>Чч</em></td>

<td>/͡tʃ/</td>

<td>like in "chest"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Шш</td>

<td><em>Шш</em></td>

<td>/ʃ/</td>

<td>like "sh" in "shelf"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Щщ</td>

<td><em>Щщ</em></td>

<td>/ʃ͡tʃ/</td>

<td>combination of "sh" and "ch"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Ьь</td>

<td><em>Ьь</em></td>

<td>/<span class="IPA" title="Representation in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)">◌</span>ʲ/</td>

<td>a soft sign</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Юю</td>

<td><em>Юю</em></td>

<td>/ju/ or /ʲu/</td>

<td>like in "you"</td>

</tr>

<tr>

<td>Яя</td>

<td><em>Яя</em></td>

<td>/ja/ or /ʲa/</td>

<td>like in "yard"</td>

</tr>

</tbody>

</table>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p><strong>Remember</strong>:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Ukrainian consonants by themselves are not and can not be soft. Thus don't pronounce letters &ldquo;р&rdquo; (r), &ldquo;т&rdquo; (t), &ldquo;ч&rdquo; (ch), &ldquo;ш&rdquo; (sh), &ldquo;щ&rdquo; (shch) softly like in English;</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>&ldquo;ь&rdquo; is a consonant, but it can't be pronounced by itself. It's only purpose is to soften consonants before it.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h1>More about letters</h1>

<h2>Vowels</h2>

<p>There are two types of vowels in Ukrainian language:</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Hard vowels: <em>а, е, и, і, о</em>.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Iotified vowels: <em>я, ю, є, ї</em>. The name comes from the consonant &ldquo;й&rdquo; (iot).</p>

<p>й + а = я</p>

<p>й + у = ю</p>

<p>й + е = є</p>

<p>й + і = ї</p>

</li>

</ol>

<h2>Consonants</h2>

<p>You may find the names of the following groups a bit hard to understand or memorize, that's why I recommend to focus on the consonants from each group instead.</p>

<ol>

<li>

<p>Labials (<strong>б, п, в, м, ф</strong>): these consonants can't be soft and can never be doubled (remember them well, because they will appear in the article about apostrophes).</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Post-alveolar sibilants (<strong>ж, ч, ш, щ</strong>): can't be soft either. They never come in pair with iotified vowels <em>я, ю, є, ї</em> or soft sign <em>ь</em>. Сan be doubled.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Dentals (<strong>д, з, л, н, с, т, ц</strong>): these letters can be both hard and soft. Can be doubled.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Alveolar (<strong>р</strong>): this letter can be either hard or soft. It is always hard at the end of a syllable. It is always hard at the end of a word and is never followed by a soft sign. Сan never be doubled.</p>

</li>

<li>

<p>Velars (<strong>г, ґ, к, х</strong>): these letters are always hard. Can never be doubled.</p>

</li>

</ol>

<p>&nbsp;</p>

<p>One more thing. You may find in different sources that the consonants: б, п, в, м, ф / ж, ч, ш, щ / г, ґ, к, х can be both soft and hard (unlike above), which is actually due to a fact that in Ukrainian language we have two categories for &ldquo;soft&rdquo;: soft and softened. The second one means that the consonant isn't soft fully, but only in a half. Nevertheless, I don't think you will understand such explanation in full, but still I have to notice this to guard myself from further questions on this.</p>

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